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SHARING ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL CREATIONS OF ALLAH

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
BRIEF HISTORY OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• 1640: Jean Baptiste van Helmont – study
the growth of plants. (plants grew mainly
from water not soil)
• 1772: Joseph Priestley – green plants
restore oxygen which can support
combustion (candle in an upturned glass
jar)
• Jan Ingenhousz: Plants only release
oxygen in the presence of sunlight
BRIEF HISTORY OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• 1780s: Jean Senebier – carbon dioxide was
taken by plants during photosynthesis.
• 1796: Ingenhousz verified that carbon dioxide is
the source of carbon for photosynthesis
• 1804: de Saussure – water required for
photosynthesis
• 1845: Robert Mayer – plants convert photo
energy into chemical energy during
photosynthesis.
BRIEF HISTORY OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• 1905: Blackman – photosynthesis involves
2 principal reactions (photochemical and
biochemical). Photochemical is light-
dependent, biochemical is light-
independent
• 1937: Robert Hill – chloroplasts are able to
produce oxygen by splitting water
molecules in the absence of carbon
dioxide.
LEAF STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CROSS SECTION OF LEAF
LEAF STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
• Xylem: transports water
• Phloem: transports organic products of
photosynthesis
• Epidermis: protective layer on the upper and
lower surfaces of the leaf
• Cuticle: waterproof layer which reduce excessive
water lost
• Stomata: allowing exchange of gases between
the internal part of the leaf and the environment
• Guard cells: regulate the size of the pore.
STRUCTURE OF CHLOROPLAST
PHOTOSYNTHESIS – LIGHT
REACTION
• Takes place in the grana
• The raw material needed is water
• During light reaction, chlorophyll captures
light energy which excites the electrons of
chlorophyll molecules
• Light energy is also used to split water
molecules into hydrogen ions (H+) and
hydroxyl ions (OH-): PHOTOLYSIS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS – LIGHT
REACTION
• The hydrogen ions then combine with the
electrons released by chlorophyll to form
hydrogen atoms.
• Energy released from the excited electrons is
used to form energy rich molecules of ATP
• At the same time, each hydroxyl ion loses an
electron to form hydroxyl group. Hydroxyl groups
combine to form water and gaseous oxygen.
Oxygen is released into atmosphere
PHOTOSYNTHESIS – LIGHT
REACTION
LIGHT
• 24H2O CHLOROPYLL
24H+ + 24OH-

• 24H+ + 24e- 24 H (hydrogen atoms)

• 24 OH- 24OH + 24 e-

• 24 OH 12H2O + 6O2
PHOTOSYNTHESIS – DARK
REACTION
• The ATP molecules and hydrogen atoms
move to the stroma to provide energy
• Hydrogen atoms are used to fix carbon
dioxide in a series of reactions catalysed
by photosynthetic enzymes.
• Overall reaction results in the reduction of
carbon dioxide into glucose.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS – DARK
REACTION

• 6CO2 + 24H 6(CH2O) + 6 H2O


• 6 (CH2O) C6H12O6
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• Glucose monomers then undergo
condensation to form starch which is
temporarily stored as starch granules in
the chloroplasts.
• The entire process of photosynthesis can
be represented by the following chemical
equation:
LIGHT
• 12H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 +6H2O
CHLOROPYLL
EVALUATION
• Work in groups. Review the mechanism of
photosynthesis which has been discussed and list out
the comparison between light and dark reaction.

Light Reaction Differences Dark Reaction

•Light energy
required
• Site of reaction
• Substances
required for
reaction
•Products of
reaction