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Topic 2 & 4

Learning outcomes
To define project initiation, scope and planning To Explain priorities of the project To describe deliverables and milestone To explain in detail work breakdown structure


Topic 2

Project initiation
The process of authorizing a new or continuing an existing project
Projects authorized as a result of A market demand An organizational need A customer request A technological advance A legal requirement

Project Scope
Project Scope

A definition of the end result or mission of the projecta product or service for the client/customerin specific, tangible, and measurable terms.
Purpose of the Scope Statement

To clearly define the deliverable(s) for the end user.

To focus the project on successful completion of its goals. To be used by the project owner and participants as a planning tool and for measuring project success.

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Project Scope: Terms and Definitions

Scope - refers to all (100%) the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them Scope Statements Also called statements of work (SOW) Project Charter Can contain an expanded version of scope statement A document authorizing the project manager to initiate and lead the project. Scope Creep The tendency for the project scope to expand over time due to changing requirements, specifications, and priorities.

Establishing Project Priorities

Causes of Project Trade-offs Shifts in the relative importance of criterions related to cost, time, and performance parameters BudgetCost ScheduleTime PerformanceScope Managing the Priorities of Project Trade-offs Constrain: a parameter is a fixed requirement. Enhance: optimizing a criterion over others. Accept: reducing (or not meeting) a criterion requirement.

Project Management Trade-offs

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The Triple Constraint

Project Management Trade-offs

Deliverables vs Milestones

Deliverables versus Milestones

Deliverables Tangible, verifiable work products Reports, presentations, prototypes, etc. Milestones Significant events or achievements Acceptance of deliverables or phase completion Cruxes (proof of concepts) Quality control Keeps team focused


Topic 2

Project Planning
A project planning is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents The primary purpose of planning is to establish a set of directions in enough detail to tell the project team exactly what must be done Project plans assist the project manager in leading the project team and assessing project status Building the plan should not be done in secret or in isolation; the whole project team needs to participate


Attributes of Project Plans

Just as projects are unique, so are project plans Plans should be dynamic Plans should be flexible Plans should be updated as changes occur (Integrated Change Control) Plans should first and foremost guide project execution Plans should never assume the team will work overtime, at least not at the start


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

A WBS is an outcome oriented list of tasks executed by the project team to accomplish stated project objectives It is a foundation document that provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes An hierarchical outline (map) that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project


WBS Uses Throughout the Project

Guide the work of the entire project team Facilitate communication Aid the team in building the schedule and budget Assigning the right person to the right task Getting the project to a done state Aid in quality control Accountability Reduce scope creep Aid in budget and schedule progress reporting and performance reporting Aid in examining alternative steps in building a product


Building the WBS

Using guidelines: Some organizations, provide guidelines/requirements for preparing a WBS The analogy approach: A WBS is first created by looking for a similar project done in the past and using its WBS as a starting point The top-down approach: Start with the largest items of the project and keep breaking them down into smaller and smaller parts The bottoms-up approach: Start with the detailed tasks and roll them up Thread concentrate on most important items first

Hierarchical Breakdown of the WBS

How WBS Helps the Project Manager

Facilitates evaluation of cost, time, and technical performance of the organization on a project.

Provides management with information appropriate to each organizational level.

Helps in the development of the organization breakdown structure (OBS). which assigns project responsibilities to organizational units and individuals Helps manage plan, schedule, and budget. Defines communication channels and assists in coordinating the various project elements.

Example of WBS: Holiday


travel documents





choose resort brochures




WBS Organized by Product Part

WBS by Process Phase

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Packages
A work package is the lowest level of the WBS. It is output-oriented in that it: 1. 2. 3. 4. Defines work (what). Identifies time to complete a work package (how long). Identifies a time-phased budget to complete a work package (cost). Identifies resources needed to complete a work package (how much).


Identifies a person responsible for units of work (who).

Identifies monitoring points (milestones) for measuring success.

Example Work Breakdown Schedule

The WBS Should Follow the Work Package Concept

Work packages

Figure 8.10

Work packages for a training course

WBS Outputs
WBS Dictionary
Description of each component Who is responsible for development

Statement of Work (SOW)

Important milestones Estimate of costs and required resources