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CFX Multiphase 12.

0 Workshop 5

U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

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WS5-1

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Introduction
This example demonstrates the use of Lagrangian particle tracking in ANSYS CFX. This models true multiphase flow and is valid for systems where particles are present at low volume loadings (< 10%) In order to shorten run-time, a twodimensional planar mesh is used This example features:
Lagrangian particle tracking Buoyant flow

Workshop Supplement

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-2

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Background
In this example, particles of different sizes are modeled as discrete moving points using the Lagrangian particle tracking model. Deposition walls for particles can be defined by setting the normal coefficient of restitution to zero so that particles "stick" on the wall when they hit it. Flow through a rectangular duct with a 90 bend is modeled. Gravity acts downward. Particles with diameters of 1, 10, and 100 microns are modeled. This example models the same system and physics as the Algebraic Slip workshop but within the Lagrangian Particle tracking framework
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Workshop Supplement

Inlet Flow

Gravity

Deposition Walls

WS5-3

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Computational Mesh
The mesh is one cell thick in the z-direction (the thickness extent is 0.1 in)

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-4

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Importing the Mesh

Workshop Supplement

Copy the file CFX gtm file hex.gtm from the input files folder into a working directory Start CFX-Pre from the ANSYS CFX Launcher. Create a new simulation (File/New Case/General). Right-click on Mesh in the Outline and import the hex.gtm file into the simulation setting the type to CFX Mesh.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-5

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Imported Mesh

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WS5-6

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Continuous and Dispersed Phase Materials


You will define three dispersed phase fluid definitions (small, medium, and large) to model the small, medium, and large particles

Workshop Supplement

Click on the + sign next to Materials in the Tree View and find the constant property liquid named Water.
This material will be used to set the properties of the particles while the continuous phase properties will be referenced to the material Air at 25 C

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-7

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Defining the Continuous Phase Domain Fluid


Double-click the Default Domain created for your imported mesh to edit it (if a default domain was not created, create one). On the Basic Settings tab of the Details form for the domain:
Set the Domain Type to Fluid Domain Highlight Fluid 1 in the Fluid and Particle Definition window and click on the Delete icon to remove it Click on the New icon in the Fluid and Particle definition window and insert a new fluid named air Select the predefined constant property material Air at 25 C and set the Morphology Option to Continuous Fluid

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-8

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Defining the Dispersed Phase Fluid small


On the Basic Settings tab of the Details form for the domain:
Click on the New icon in the Fluid and Particle definition window and insert a new fluid named small Select the predefined constant property material Water and set the Morphology Option to Particle Transport Fluid Enable the toggle for Particle Diameter Distribution, set the Option to Specified Diameter and enter a Diameter of 1e-6 [m]

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-9

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Defining the Dispersed Phase Fluid medium


On the Basic Settings tab of the Details form for the domain:
Click on the New icon in the Fluid and Particle definition window and insert a new fluid named medium Select the predefined constant property material Water and set the Morphology Option to Particle Transport Fluid Enable the toggle for Particle Diameter Distribution, set the Option to Specified Diameter and enter a Diameter of 1e-5 [m]

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-10

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Defining the Dispersed Phase Fluid large


On the Basic Settings tab of the Details form for the domain:
Click on the New icon in the Fluid and Particle definition window and insert a new fluid named large Select the predefined constant property material Water and set the Morphology Option to Particle Transport Fluid Enable the toggle for Particle Diameter Distribution, set the Option to Specified Diameter and enter a Diameter of 1e-4 [m]

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-11

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Setting the Buoyancy Properties


On the Basic Settings tab under Domain Models:
Set the Buoyancy Option to Buoyant with a gravity vector of (9.81,0,0 [m/s^2]) and a Buoyancy Reference Density equal to that of Air at 25 C (1.185 kg/m^3) Leave all other settings at their default values

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WS5-12

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Fluid Domain: Fluid Models


On the Fluid Models tab:
Set the Heat Transfer Model Option to None Set the Turbulence Model Option to k-epsilon

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-13

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Fluid Domain: Fluid Specific Models


On the Fluid Specific Models tab:
Highlight each Fluid in the Fluid list and verify that the Fluid Buoyancy Model for each of the continuous and dispersed phases is set to Density Difference (the Erosion Model for the dispersed phases can be set to None since no erosion is modeled in this tutorial)

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WS5-14

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Fluid Domain: Fluid Pair Models


On the Fluid Pair Models tab:
Highlight each of the three continuousdispersed fluid pair and set the Particle Coupling to One-Way Coupling (full fluidparticle coupling is not required since the particles are present at low volume loadings) For One-Way coupling in steady-flow, Lagrangian particle tracking is effectively a post-processing calculation, done once at the end of the run when the continuous phase calculation has converged Also set the Drag Force Option for each fluidparticle pair to Schiller Naumann which was the same drag law used for the Algebraic Slip simulation Once the settings for the three fluid-particle pairs is complete, click OK to complete the domain definition

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-15

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Boundary Conditions
For this simulation, the boundary conditions include: an Inlet at the top left
(low x) face Symmetry Planes on the high and low z-faces An Outlet on the far right (high y-face) No-slip particle deposition Walls at the leftmost (low y) and bottom (high x) faces of the domain. No-slip non-deposition Walls at remaining faces of the domain as shown Deposition Walls Inlet

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Non-Deposition Walls Symmetry

Outlet

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WS5-16

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Inlet Boundary: inlet


Click the Boundary Conditions icon from the menu bar to create a new boundary and name it inlet On the Basic Settings tab, set the Boundary Type to Inlet and the Location to IN On the Boundary Details tab panel:
Set the Mass and Momentum Option to Normal Speed with a value of 0.10 m/s. Set Turbulence Option to Medium

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-17

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Fluid Values for inlet


On the Fluid Values tab for the inlet boundary, for each dispersed phase particle:
Enable the Define Particle Behavior toggle Set the Mass and Momentum Option to Normal Speed with a value of 0.10 m/s. Set the Particle Position Option to Injection at IP Face Centres

Workshop Supplement

Set the Mass Flow Rate to 6.4e-8 kg/s (for one-way coupling, this is used only for postprocessing purposes
Repeat these steps for medium and small. Click OK to complete the definition of the boundary.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-18

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Outlet Boundary: outlet

Workshop Supplement

Click the Boundary Conditions icon from the menu bar Enter a name (outlet) for the boundary condition and click OK On the Basic Settings tab, set the Boundary Type to Outlet and the Location to OUT. On the Boundary Details tab panel, set Mass and Momentum Option to Average Static Pressure and set a Relative Pressure of 0 Pa. Leave the other settings at their default values Click OK

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-19

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Symmetry Boundaries: sym1 and sym2


Create a new boundary condition and give it a name (sym1). On the Basic Settings tab, set the Boundary Type to Symmetry and the Location to SYM1 and click OK. Create a new boundary condition and give it a name (sym2). On the Basic Settings tab, set the Boundary Type to Symmetry and the Location to SYM2 and click OK.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-20

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Deposition Wall Boundary: outerwall


Create a new boundary condition named outerwall.
On the Basic Settings tab, set the Type to Wall and the Location to BOTTOMWALL and SIDEWALL
On the Boundary Details tab, set the Wall Influence on Flow Option to No Slip

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On the Fluid Values tab, set the Perpendicular Coefficient of Resitution to 0 for all three particles (large, medium, and small) so that the particles will stick to the wall if and when they hit it
Click OK to complete the boundary definition

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-21

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Non-Deposition Wall Boundary: innerwall


Create a new boundary condition named innerwall.
On the Basic Settings tab, set the Type to Wall and the Location to INNERWALL and TOPWALL On the Boundary Details tab, set the Wall Influence on Flow Option to No Slip. On the Fluid Values tab, set the Perpendicular Coefficient of Resitution to 1.0 for all three particles (large, medium, and small) so that the particles will bounce perfectly off the wall if and when they hit it Click OK to complete the boundary definition

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WS5-22

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Boundary Condition Summary

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WS5-23

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Extra Particle Variable Output


It is possible to write extra variables to the results file that consist of particle variables (which exist on the particle tracks) which are interpolated to the fluid mesh so that they can be viewed like any variable One benefit of doing this is that the particle mass flow rates will then be available on the fluid mesh
Click on Output Control and enable the toggle to define Extra Variables Click on the expand list button and select Averaged Velocity from the drop down list for the large, medium, and small particles Click OK on the dropdown and then OK on the Output Control form
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WS5-24

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Solver Parameters
Click on the Solver Control icon from the menu On the Basic Settings tab:
Set the Advection Scheme to High Resolution Set the Timescale Control to Auto Timescale Set the Max. Iterations to 100 Enter 1e-4 for the Residual Target and enable a Conservation Target and set a value of 0.01

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On the Particle Control tab, enable the toggle for Vertex Variable smoothing and set it to Raw. Click OK to apply the Solver Settings

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-25

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Define Run and Write Solver File


Click the Define Run icon from the menu bar
Enable the Quit CFX-Pre toggle and click Save to write the solver input file and then start the Solver Manager Click Save and Quit when prompted to save the simulation file

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WS5-26

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Running the Solver

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When the Solver Manager Define Run form appears, click Start Run to initiate the run.

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WS5-27

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Monitoring the Solution

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WS5-28

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Assessing Particle Fates


The run should converge to reasonably good conservation balances within approximately 30 iterations

Workshop Supplement

Browse the output file and check the Particle Fate Diagnostics for the three particle classes.
Note from the particle fate summary that approximately 98% 80% and 0% of the Small, Medium, and Large particles make it to the outlet which is in reasonable agreement with the values of 100%, 85%, and 0% from the ASM workshop. Start CFX-Post and load the results file from your run
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-29

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Post Processing small Particle Tracks

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Start CFX-Post and view the particle tracks for the small particles, setting the maximum number of tracks to 25 and coloring the tracks according to small.Velocity

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-30

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Post Processing medium Particle Tracks

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Start CFX-Post and view the particle tracks for the medium particles, setting the maximum number of tracks to 25 and coloring the tracks according to medium.Velocity

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WS5-31

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Post Processing large Particle Tracks

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Start CFX-Post and view the particle tracks for the large particles, setting the maximum number of tracks to 25 and coloring the tracks according to large.Velocity

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

WS5-32

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Post-Processing

Workshop Supplement

Make sym1 visible and color it according to medium.Averaged Volume Fraction. Compare this plot with the corresponding plot from the ASM workshop.

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WS5-33

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Mass Flux to Outerwall

Workshop Supplement

Create the follow variables and color outerwall according to them. Compare these with the corresponding plots from the ASM workshop:
smallwallmassflux = abs(small.Wall Mass Flow Density) mediumwallmassflux = abs(medium.Wall Mass Flow Density) largewallmassflux = abs(large.Wall Mass Flow Density)

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WS5-34

September 1, 2009 Inventory #

WS5: U-Bend with Lagrangian Particle Tracking

Computing Particle Mass Flows on a Plane

Workshop Supplement

Create a ZX-Plane at a Y-value of 0.10 [m]. Use Tools/Function Calculator to sum the particle mass flows for the three particle classes and compare these with the inlet values. You can use this approach to count tracks crossing a cut plane by multiplying by the ratio of the number of particles injected to the inlet mass flow rate

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WS5-35

September 1, 2009 Inventory #