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Treatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater

Mike Lawrence NDSU Fall 2006



Parameters Treatment Options Process Modifications Typical On-site Treatment Options Design Problem

Challenges of Slaughterhouse Wastewater


contains large amounts of blood, fat, and hair Wastewater is above municipal standards which leaves two options; on site treatment or pay to be treated elsewhere On site treatment with low capital and maintenance costs is desirable

Wastewater Parameters

approx. 1,000 to 4,000 mg/L COD approx. 2,000 to 10,000 mg/L SS approx. 200 to 1,500 mg/L High Oil and Grease content Possible high chloride content from salting skins

Treatment Options
Discharge to sewer to be treated by municipal treatment plant Land application of wastewater for irrigation Reduce amount of wastewater and/or concentrations with the wastewater by changing the processes On site Treatment

Flow Equalization, Screening, Dissolved Air Flotation, Primary Sedimentation Aerobic Treatment Anaerobic Treatment

In-Plant Modifications to Reduce Pollution

Main goal should be to prevent product from entering the waste stream and using the least amount of water possible Reduce the amount of water used, saves money in two ways Use high pressure and just enough Proper detergents Lower volume of water helps equipment Reuse as much water as possible

Line Separation

the various waste streams as much as possible Sanitary lines should be discharged directly to the city sewer Grease waste streams and non grease waste streams can help reduce treatment costs Separate Blood line

Blood Recovery
Blood has ultimate BOD of 405,000 mg/L One head of cattle contains 49 lbs. of blood which equals 10 lbs. BOD, compared to 0.2 lbs. discharged per person per day All blood should be recovered in a separate line draining to a tank Blood is then dried, commonly a continuous drier is used Profitable end product

Stockpen Area

waste and other manure should be hauled away as a solid Cleaned periodically with as little water as possible Ideally this water would go to a separate tank From the tank it would be emptied into a truck and land applied

On-Site Treatment

of treating on site or letting the municipality treat the waste should calculated Maintenance and operation should be also put into cost analysis Flow equalization is usually a very good first step in on-site treatment


BOD Removal 5-20% TSS Removal 5-30%

Width Height Capacity Estimated (ft) (ft) (gpm) Price

3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7 14

5 7 7 7 7.3 7.3

150 300 400 500 1000 2000

$6,400 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $20,000 $40,000

28 35

7.3 7.3

4000 5000

$80,000 $100,000

SS and Grease Removal


removal could be very profitable Skimming operations

20 to 30 % BOD removal 40 to 50 % SS removal 50 to 60 % grease removal

Air Flotation, DAF

30 to 35 % BOD removal 60 % SS removal 80 % grease removal

Skimming Operation (Primary Sedimentation)


time 1.5 to 2.5 hr Overflow Rate 800 to 1200 gal/ft2*d

Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)

Hydraulic Loading Rate

1.5 to 5.0 gpm/ sq. ft.

Solids Removal Rate

1.0 to 2.0 lbs/hr/sq. ft.

Anaerobic Lagoons
Ideally the lagoon would be covered, odor & gas production contained, heat retention Not well suited for colder climates Detention time 20 to 50 days BOD5 loading= 200 to 500 lb/ac.-d

Anaerobic Contact Reactor (ACR)


Retention time 0.5-5 days Organic Loading rate of 1.0-8.0 kg COD/m3-d

Flocculator or

Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR)

HRT 6 to 24 hours SRT 50 to 200 days 98% removal with 1.2kgCOD/m3-d 92% removal with 2.4kgCOD/m3-d Possibly rates to 5 kgCOD/m3-d Effluent SS range between 50 100mg/L depending on HRT

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)

Proteins and fats may cause problems in formation of granules. Loading rates of 4-12 kg sCOD/m3-d Retention times of 7-14 hours

Design Problem

300 gpm TSS=1500 mg/L COD=5000 mg/L sCOD=3000 mg/L BOD5=2,000 mg/L Reduce levels to municipal levels and discharge into sewer

gpd, 83 gpm, Max



prior to flow equalization to save on pumps and buildup in the tanks Design for max flow of 300 gpm 4.5 by 7 foot model will handle flow Approximate cost of $8,000


Rate of 600 gal/ft2-d Final Design

8 ft. wide, 25 ft. long, 10 ft. deep 8 ft. of weir w/ loading rate of 15,000 gpd/ft HRT = 3 hours

10 ft 8 ft

25 ft

Anaerobic Lagoon

for heat retention Side depth = 8 feet Final Design 540 lb BOD5/ac-d HRT=80 days Plan View

400 ft

400 ft

Anaerobic Contact Reactor


Design HRT=5 days Loading Rate 1.0 kg COD/m3-d Clarifier design based on 24m/d settling velocity
56 ft 16ft Anaerobic Contact Reactor, 30 ft Completely Mixed Clarifier Flocculator, Deglassifier 10 ft

Aerated Sequencing Batch Reactor

Two reactors of same size Feed 8 hr, react 37.5 hr, settle 2 hr, drain .5 hr Feed 8 hr, react 13.5 hr, settle 2 hr, drain .5 hr

24 ft

46 ft

Supernatant Drain 11.5 ft above bottom Sludge waste at bottom

Upflow Aerated Sludge Blanket Reactor


Rate of 10 kg sCOD/m3-d Two tanks, operated in parallel Diameter = 4.5 m, Height= 7 m, 2.5 m for gas storage
4.5 m


Final Design

Hydrasieve: effectiveness and low capital, O & M costs Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Tank is smaller than most of the others due to high organic loading rate Provides constant source of methane gas