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WCDMA RAN Principle

3G RNP&O

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Outline the advantage of CDMA principle

Characterize code sequence


Outline the fundamentals of RAN

1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

3G Spectrum Allocation

Bands Used in WCDMA


Main bands

1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz


Supplementary bands: different country maybe different 1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) ... Frequency channel numbercentral frequency5, for main band: UL frequency channel number 96129888 DL frequency channel number : 1056210838

3G Application Service
Error Ratio
conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Time Delay

The Core technology of 3G: CDMA

WCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA

cdma2000
CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000

TD-SCDMA

CDMA

CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA

1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Multiple Access Technology


FDMA TDMA

Power Power

CDMA

Power

Duplex Techniques
Power Time

USER 2

FDD
UL

USER 1

DL
Frequency

Power

Time

DL UL DL DL UL

USER 2 USER 1

TDD

Frequency

1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

WCDMA Network Archiecture


CN Core Network CS PS Iu-CS Iu-PS RNS RNC UTRAN Iub Iub Node B Iub CS PS Iu-CS Iu-PS RNS

Iur

RNC Iub

Node B

Node B

Node B

UE

Uu

Network Evolution
MBMS HSUPA

GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT

CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT

IMS HSDPA

3GPP Rel6

3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel99

3GPP Rel4

2000

2001

2002

2005

Network Evolution
Features of R6
MBMS is introduced HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5.76Mbps

Features of R7
HSPA+ is introduced, which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO
Max DL rate: 28Mbps, Max UL rate:11Mbps

Features of R8
WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced

OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA


Max DL rate: 50Mbps, Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth)

Uu Interface protocol structure

Duplication avoidance
GC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information UuS boundary

RRC
control

L3

L2/PDCP L2/BMC
RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC

L2/RLC

RLC

MAC PHY

L2/MAC

General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface

The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other.
Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s)

Signaling Bearer(s)

Signaling Bearer(s)
Physical Layer

Data Bearer(s)

General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface


The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other.
Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s)

Signaling Bearer(s)

Signaling Bearer(s)
Physical Layer

Data Bearer(s)

Iu-CS Interface
Radio Network Layer
Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Layer

ALCAP
SCCP A MTP3-B B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH

SAAL NNI

ATM Physical Layer

Iu-CS Interface Protocol (IP)

Iu-PS Interface
Radio Network Layer
Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3-B

Transport Network User Plane GTP-U UDP IP

SAAL NNI

AAL Type 5

ATM Physical Layer

Iu-PS Interface Protocol (IP)

Iub Interface
Radio Network Layer Control Plane NBAP NCP CCP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP Transport Network User Plane User plane Iub FP

SAAL UNI

SAAL UNI

AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

Iub Interface Protocol (ATM)

Iub Interface Protocol (IP)

1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

WCDMA Source Coding


AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech
A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections
CODEC AMR_12.20 AMR_10.20 AMR_7.95 AMR_7.40 AMR_6.70 AMR_5.90 AMR_5.15 AMR_4.75 Bit Rate (kbps) 12.2 (GSM EFR) 10.2 7.95 7.4 (TDMA EFR) 6.7 (PDC EFR) 5.9 5.15 4.75

Video Phone Service


H.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain Includes: video codec, speech codec, data protocols, multiplexing and etc.

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Service Signal

Source Coding

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

WCDMA Block Coding - CRC


Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they are checked after the channel decoding.

WCDMA Channel Coding


Effect
Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs Provides better error correction at receiver, but brings increment of the delay

Types
No Coding Convolutional Coding (1/2, 1/3) Turbo Coding (1/3)
No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding Code Block of N Bits 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits

WCDMA Interleaving
Effect
Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay
Input bits 0010000 ... 10111

0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 ... ... 0

0 0 ... ... ... ... 1 1 0 1

0 ... ... 1 1 0 ... ... 1 1

Interleaving periods: 20, 40, or 80 ms

Inter-column permutation

0 0 ... ... ... ... 1 1

000101001011

Output bits

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Correlation
Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. Identical and Orthogonal signals:
+1

C1 C2

-1 +1 -1 +1

-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1

Correlation = 1 Identical signals

C1 C2
+1 -1

-1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1

Correlation = 0 Orthogonal signals

Orthogonal Code Usage - Coding


UE1: UE2: 1 1 1 1

C1 :
C2 : UE1c1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE2c2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1c1 UE2c2

0 2

0 2

0 2

Orthogonal Code Usage Decoding


UE1C1 UE2C2: 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2

UE1 Dispreading by c1: Dispreading result: Integral judgment:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0

4 (means1) 4 (means1)

UE2 Dispreading by c2: Dispreading result: Integral judgment:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0

4 (means1) 4 (means1)

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading


P(f) Spreading code P(f)

f Narrowband signal

f Broadband signal P(f) f Noise & Other Signal

Recovered signal P(f)

Signal Combination

Noise+Broadband signal P(f)

Spreading code

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading


Eb / No = Ec / No PG
Ebit
Eb/No Requiremen t

Max allowed interference

Process Gain
Process Gain

chip rate Pr ocessGain 10log( ) bit rate


Process gain differs for each service. If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is smaller, UE needs more power for this service, then the coverage of this service will be smaller, vice versa.

Spreading Technology
Spreading consists of 2 steps:
Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into chips Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal

Data symbol

channelization scrambling

WCDMA Channelization Code


OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as channelization code
Cch,8,0 = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1) Cch,8,1 = (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1, -1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) Cch,8,2 = (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1) Cch,8,3 = (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1) Cch,8,4 = (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1) Cch,8,5 = (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1) Cch,8,6 = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1) Cch,8,7 = (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

Cch,4,0 = (1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1)

SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

SF = 8

WCDMA Channelization Code


SF = chip rate / symbol rate

High data rates low SF code Low data rates high SF code
Radio bearer Speech 12.2 UL Data 64 kbps UL SF 64 16 Radio bearer Speech 12.2 DL Data 64 kbps DL SF 128 32

Data 128 kbps UL


Data 144 kbps UL Data 384 kbps UL

8
8 4

Data 128 kbps DL


Data 144 kbps DL Data 384 kbps DL

16
16 8

Purpose of Channelization Code


Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical channels of one transmitter For downlink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell For uplink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE

Purpose of Scrambling Code


Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters
For downlink, scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier For uplink, scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier

Scrambling Code
Scrambling code: GOLD sequence. There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC. For downlink, 512 primary scrambling codes are used.

Primary Scrambling Code Group


Primary scrambling code 0 Group 0

Primary scrambling code 1

Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels

Group 1

Primary scrambling code 8


Primary scrambling code 8*63

Group 63

Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7

512 primary scrambling codes

64 primary scrambling code groups

Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes

Code Multiplexing
Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level
Scrambling code Channelization code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code 3 User 3 signal
NodeB

Code Multiplexing
Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level
Scrambling code 1
Channelization code User 1 signal Scrambling code 2 Channelization code User 2 signal
NodeB

Scrambling code 3 Channelization code User 3 signal

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

Modulation Overview
Data to be transmitted: Digital Input

0
time

Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A.cos(2pFt+f) Amplitude Shift Keying:

A.cos(2pFt+f)
Frequency Shift Keying: A.cos(2p

Ft+f) f

Phase Shift Keying: A.cos(2pFt+ )

Modulation Overview
Digital Modulation - BPSK
1
1
Digital Input

10

Information signal

t
NRZ coding

t
-1

High Frequency Carrier

Carrier

fo

10

BPSK Waveform

f=0 f=p f=0

Modulated BPSK signal BPSK

Modulation Overview
Digital Modulation - QPSK
1 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream 2 3 -1 -1 1 4 1 5 -1 -1 1 6 1 7 1 1 -1 8 -1 -1 -1 9 10

I Component

Q Q Component Component

QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Demodulation
QPSK Constellation Diagram
1 QPSK Waveform

-1,1

-1,1 -1,1

1,-1

-1,-1

NRZ Output

-1

-1

-1

WCDMA Modulation
Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface
R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM

Wireless Propagation
Transmitted Signal

Amplitude

Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading

Received Signal
Time

Principle of RAKE Receiver


Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system