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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A.

Judge

Chapter 11

Leadership
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After studying this chapter, you should be able to:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Contrast leadership and management List the traits of effective leaders Define and give examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compare and contrast trait and behavioral theories Describe Fiedlers contingency model Define the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrast transformational with transactional leadership Identify when leadership may not be necessary Explain how to find and create effective leaders
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Leadership vs. Management


Leadership About coping with change Establish direction, align resources and inspire Management About coping with complexity Brings about order and consistency

Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.
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Trait Theories
Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics Extraversion related strongest to leadership Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly related to leadership Traits can predict leadership Traits are better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness
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Behavioral Theories
Assumes people can be trained to lead Researched the behaviors of specific leaders Provides the basis of design for training programs

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Ohio State Studies


Developed two categories of leadership behavior
Initiating structure - attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals Consideration - concern for followers comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction

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University of Michigan Studies


Employee-oriented - emphasize interpersonal relations Production-oriented - emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job Employee-oriented behavior leads to higher productivity and satisfaction

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Contingency Theories
Fiedler Model Leader-Member Exchange Theory Path-goal Theory

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Fiedler Leadership Model


Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire used to determine basic leadership style (assumes this style is fixed)
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Fiedler Contingency Dimensions


Dimensions define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness:
Leader-member relations Task structure Position power

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Findings from the Fiedler Model

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Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory


Leaders do differentiate among followers Disparities are far from random Followers with in-group status have:
higher performance ratings lower turnover intentions greater satisfaction with their superiors higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group
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Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

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Path-Goal Theory
Leaders job is to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals Four leadership behaviors:
Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement-oriented leader
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Path-Goal Theory

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Charismatic Leadership Theory


Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors

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Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders

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How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers


Articulates an appealing vision Communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that followers can attain them Conveys, through words and actions, a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate Engages in emotion-inducing behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision
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The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership


Leaders dont necessarily act in the best interest of the organization Use organizational resources for personal benefit Remake companies in their own image Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organizations goals
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Transformational Leadership
Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization
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Transactional vs. Transformational Leader

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Full Range of Leadership Model

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How Transformational Leadership Works


Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them Vision engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust
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Authentic Leadership
Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly If were looking for the best possible leader, it is not enough to be charismatic or visionary one must also be ethical and create trust on the part of followers
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Challenges to the Leadership Construct


Attribution theory of leadership says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals Leaders dont always have an impact on follower outcomes due to organizational variables that can neutralize the leaders influence or act as substitutes for leadership
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Finding and Creating Effective Leaders


Selection:
Personality test to look for traits associated with leadership Match leaders to situations

Training:
Train those willing to change their behavior Can teach implementation skills and transformational skills
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Implications for Managers


Leaders influence group performance Leadership success depends somewhat on having the right stuff Leadership depends on the situation Transformational skills becoming more important Select and train based on traits and qualities
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Summary
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
8. 9.

Contrasted leadership and management Listed the traits of effective leaders Defined and gave examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compared and contrasted trait and behavioral theories Described Fiedlers contingency model Defined the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrasted transformational with transactional leadership Identified when leadership may not be necessary Explained how to find and create effective leaders
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