Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A.


Chapter 11


After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Contrast leadership and management List the traits of effective leaders Define and give examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compare and contrast trait and behavioral theories Describe Fiedlers contingency model Define the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrast transformational with transactional leadership Identify when leadership may not be necessary Explain how to find and create effective leaders

Leadership vs. Management

Leadership About coping with change Establish direction, align resources and inspire Management About coping with complexity Brings about order and consistency

Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.

Trait Theories
Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics Extraversion related strongest to leadership Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly related to leadership Traits can predict leadership Traits are better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness

Behavioral Theories
Assumes people can be trained to lead Researched the behaviors of specific leaders Provides the basis of design for training programs


Ohio State Studies

Developed two categories of leadership behavior
Initiating structure - attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals Consideration - concern for followers comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction


University of Michigan Studies

Employee-oriented - emphasize interpersonal relations Production-oriented - emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job Employee-oriented behavior leads to higher productivity and satisfaction


Contingency Theories
Fiedler Model Leader-Member Exchange Theory Path-goal Theory


Fiedler Leadership Model

Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire used to determine basic leadership style (assumes this style is fixed)

Fiedler Contingency Dimensions

Dimensions define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness:
Leader-member relations Task structure Position power


Findings from the Fiedler Model


Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

Leaders do differentiate among followers Disparities are far from random Followers with in-group status have:
higher performance ratings lower turnover intentions greater satisfaction with their superiors higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory


Path-Goal Theory
Leaders job is to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals Four leadership behaviors:
Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement-oriented leader

Path-Goal Theory


Charismatic Leadership Theory

Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors


Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders


How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers

Articulates an appealing vision Communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that followers can attain them Conveys, through words and actions, a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate Engages in emotion-inducing behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision

The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership

Leaders dont necessarily act in the best interest of the organization Use organizational resources for personal benefit Remake companies in their own image Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organizations goals

Transformational Leadership
Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization

Transactional vs. Transformational Leader


Full Range of Leadership Model


How Transformational Leadership Works

Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them Vision engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust

Authentic Leadership
Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly If were looking for the best possible leader, it is not enough to be charismatic or visionary one must also be ethical and create trust on the part of followers

Challenges to the Leadership Construct

Attribution theory of leadership says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals Leaders dont always have an impact on follower outcomes due to organizational variables that can neutralize the leaders influence or act as substitutes for leadership

Finding and Creating Effective Leaders

Personality test to look for traits associated with leadership Match leaders to situations

Train those willing to change their behavior Can teach implementation skills and transformational skills

Implications for Managers

Leaders influence group performance Leadership success depends somewhat on having the right stuff Leadership depends on the situation Transformational skills becoming more important Select and train based on traits and qualities

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
8. 9.

Contrasted leadership and management Listed the traits of effective leaders Defined and gave examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compared and contrasted trait and behavioral theories Described Fiedlers contingency model Defined the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrasted transformational with transactional leadership Identified when leadership may not be necessary Explained how to find and create effective leaders