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Database Management: Introduction

Ray R. Larson University of California, Berkeley School of Information Management and Systems SIMS 257: Database Management
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Overview
Announcements
TA Mayjane Co

Course Description Database Concepts and Terminology Database Models

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Course Overview
Description of the Course Assignments Readings Grading Schedule Web site: http://sims.berkeley.edu/courses/is257/s04

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Course Description
This course is concerned with the design of the database itself -- not with the design of database system software.
We will discuss DBMS internals only as they relate to the database and its design and structure

We will spend a fair amount time on database application design, especially on options for Web application database support -- but this will not be primary focus.
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Assignments
Two kinds of assignments
Using a pre-built database for search and retrieval and database modification queries Designing, populating, and running queries against your own personal database
Types of database project
Individual Work related Course only Projects from around campus that need doing Group Course related SIMS Final project
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Readings
Textbook is:
Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott and Fred R. McFadden. Modern Database Management (Sixth Edition). Prentice Hall (Pearson Educational) : Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002. ISBN 0-13-061183-2

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Grading
Grades will be based on:
Assignments (30%) Personal/Group Database project (60%) Class participation (10%) (No midterm or final)

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Schedule
on website: http://sims.berkeley.edu/courses/is257/s04 /Schedule.html

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What is a Database?

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Files and Databases


File: A collection of records or documents dealing with one organization, person, area or subject. (Rowley)
Manual (paper) files Computer files

Database: A collection of similar records with relationships between the records. (Rowley)
bibliographic, statistical, business data, images, etc.

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Database
A Database is a collection of stored operational data used by the application systems of some particular enterprise. (C.J. Date)
Paper Databases
Still contain a large portion of the worlds knowledge

File-Based Data Processing Systems


Early batch processing of (primarily) business data

Database Management Systems (DBMS)

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Terms and Concepts


Database Management System -- DBMS
Software system used to define, create, maintain and provide controlled access to the database and repository

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Terms and Concepts


Repository
AKA Data Dictionary The place where all metadata for a particular database is stored may also include information on relationships between files or tables in a particular database

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Terms and Concepts


Metadata
Data about data
In DBMS means all of the characteristics describing the attributes of an entity, E.G.:
name of attribute data type of attribute size of the attribute format or special characteristics

Characteristics of files or relations


name, content, notes, etc.

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Why DBMS?
History
50s and 60s all applications were custom built for particular needs File based Many similar/duplicative applications dealing with collections of business data Early DBMS were extensions of programming languages 1970 - E.F. Codd and the Relational Model 1979 - Ashton-Tate & first Microcomputer DBMS
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File Based Systems


Application
Delivery List
Coal Estimation Just what asked for

File
Toys Addresses

Naughty

Nice Toys

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From File Systems to DBMS


Problems with File Processing systems
Inconsistent Data Inflexibility Limited Data Sharing Poor enforcement of standards Excessive program maintenance

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DBMS Benefits
Minimal Data Redundancy Consistency of Data Integration of Data Sharing of Data Ease of Application Development Uniform Security, Privacy, and Integrity Controls Data Accessibility and Responsiveness Data Independence Reduced Program Maintenance

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Terms and Concepts


Data Independence
Physical representation and location of data and the use of that data are separated
The application doesnt need to know how or where the database has stored the data, but just how to ask for it. Moving a database from one DBMS to another should not have a material effect on application program Recoding, adding fields, etc. in the database should not affect applications

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Database Environment

CASE Tools

User Interface

Application Programs

Repository

DBMS

Database

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Database Components
DBMS
===============

Design tools
Table Creation Form Creation Query Creation Report Creation Procedural language compiler (4GL) ============= Run time
Form processor Query processor Report Writer Language Run time

Database

Application Programs

Database contains: Users Data Metadata Indexes Application Metadata

User Interface Applications

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Types of Database Systems


PC Databases Centralized Database Client/Server Databases Distributed Databases Database Models

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PC Databases
E.G. Access FoxPro Dbase Etc.

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Centralized Databases

Cental Computer

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Client Server Databases


Client

Client Network Database Server Client


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Distributed Databases
Location B

Location C

computer

computer

computer
Location A
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Homogeneous Databases

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Distributed Databases
Heterogeneous Or Federated Databases Database Server Client
Remote Comp.

Local Network Comm Server Client


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Remote Comp.
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Terms and Concepts


Database Application
An application program (or set of related programs) that is used to perform a series of database activities:
Create Read Update Delete On behalf of database users

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Range of Database Applications


PC databases
Usually for individual

WorkGroup databases
Small group use where everyone has access to the database over a LAN

Departmental databases
Larger than a workgroup but similar

Enterprises databases
For the entire organization over an intranet (or sometimes the internet)
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Terms and Concepts


Database activities:
Create
Add new data to the database

Read
Read current data from the database

Update
Update or modify current database data

Delete
Remove current data from the database

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Terms and Concepts


Enterprise
Organization

Entity
Person, Place, Thing, Event, Concept...

Attributes
Data elements (facts) about some entity Also sometimes called fields or items or domains

Data values
instances of a particular attribute for a particular entity

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Terms and Concepts


Records
The set of values for all attributes of a particular entity AKA tuples or rows in relational DBMS

File
Collection of records AKA Relation or Table in relational DBMS

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Terms and Concepts


Key
an attribute or set of attributes used to identify or locate records in a file

Primary Key
an attribute or set of attributes that uniquely identifies each record in a file

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Terms and Concepts


DA
Data adminstrator - person responsible for the Data Administration function in an organization Sometimes may be the CIO -- Chief Information Officer

DBA
Database Administrator - person responsible for the Database Administration Function

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Terms and Concepts


Data Administration
Responsibility for the overall management of data resources within an organization

Database Administration
Responsibility for physical database design and technical issues in database management

Data Steward
Responsibility for some subset of the organizations data, and all of the interactions (applications, user access, etc.) for that data

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Terms and Concepts


Models
(1) Levels or views of the Database
Conceptual, logical, physical

(2) DBMS types


Relational, Hierarchic, Network, Object-Oriented, Object-Relational

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Models (1)
Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Application 4

External Model
Application 1

External Model

External Model

External Model

Conceptual requirements
Application 2

Conceptual requirements
Application 3

Conceptual requirements
Application 4

Conceptual Model

Logical Model

Internal Model

Conceptual requirements

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Data Models(2): History


Hierarchical Model (1960s and 1970s)
Similar to data structures in programming languages.
Books (id, title)
Authors (first, last)

Publisher

Subjects

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Data Models(2): History


Network Model (1970s)
Provides for single entries of data and navigational links through chains of data.

Authors Subjects Books Publishers

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Data Models(2): History


Relational Model (1980s)
Provides a conceptually simple model for data as relations (typically considered tables) with all data visible.
pubid 1 2 3 4 pubname Harper Addison Oxford Que
Authorid 1 2 3 4 5 Author name Smith Wynar Jones Duncan Applegate

Book ID 1 2 3 4 5

Title pubid Introductio The history New stuff ab Another title And yet more

2 4 3 2 1

Author id 1 2 3 4 5

Book ID 1 2 3 4 4

Subid 2 1 3 2 3
Subid Subject 1 cataloging 2 history 3 stuff

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Data Models(2): History


Object Oriented Data Model (1990s)
Encapsulates data and operations as Objects

Books (id, title)

Authors (first, last)

Publisher

Subjects

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Data Models(2): History


Object-Relational Model (1990s)
Combines the well-known properties of the Relational Model with such OO features as:
User-defined datatypes User-defined functions Inheritance and sub-classing

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Database System Life Cycle


Physical Creation 2

Design 1

Conversion 3

Growth, Change, & Maintenance 6

Integration 4 Operations 5

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Design
Determination of the needs of the organization Development of the Conceptual Model of the database
Typically using Entity-Relationship diagramming techniques

Construction of a Data Dictionary Development of the Logical Model

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Physical Creation
Development of the Physical Model of the Database
data formats and types determination of indexes, etc.

Load a prototype database and test Determine and implement security, privacy and access controls Determine and implement integrity constraints

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Conversion
Convert existing data sets and applications to use the new database
May need programs, conversion utilities to convert old data to new formats.

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Integration
Overlaps with Phase 3 Integration of converted applications and new applications into the new database

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Operations
All applications run full-scale Privacy, security, access control must be in place. Recovery and Backup procedures must be established and used

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Growth, Change & Maintenance


Change is a way of life
Applications, data requirements, reports, etc. will all change as new needs and requirements are found The Database and applications and will need to be modified to meet the needs of changes

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Another View of the Life Cycle

Integration 4 Operations 5 Design Physical 1 Creation Conversion Growth, 2 Change 3 6

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Next Time

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