Well Control
Lesson 3
Kicks and Gas Migration
2
Contents
Density of real gases
Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW)
Wellbore pressure before and after kick
Gas migration rate  first order approx.
Gas migration rate with temperature,
mud compressibility and Zfactor
considerations
Assignments
Homework #2:
Ch 1, Problems 1.111.21
Read: All of Chapter 1
4
Density of Real Gases
M = molecular
weight
m = mass
n = no. of moles
g
= S.G. of gas
ZRT
pV
n
V
nM
V
m
g
=
= =
29
M
M
M
ZRT
pM
V
M
ZRT
pV
air
g
g
= =
= =
ZRT
p
g
g
=
29
(Real Gas Law)
5
Density of Real Gases
What is the density of a 0.6 gravity gas at
10,000 psig and 200
o
F?
From Lesson 2, Fig. 1
p
pr
= p/p
pc
= 10,015/671 = 14.93
T
pr
= (200+460)/358 = 1.84
Z = 1.413
6
1.413
14.93
1.84
7
Density of Real Gases
g
= 2.33 ppg
T R Z
p 29
g
g
=
p = 10,000 psig
T = 200
o
F
g
= 0.6
{
660 ) 28 . 80 ( 413 . 1
015 , 10 ) 6 . 0 ( 29
g
=
8
Equivalent Mud Weight,
EMW
The pressure, p (psig) in a wellbore, at
a depth of x (ft) can always be
expressed in terms of an equivalent
mud density or weight.
EMW = p / (0.052 * x) in ppg
9
EMW
EMW is the density of the
mud that, in a column of
height, x (ft) will generate the
pressure, p (psig) at the
bottom, if the pressure at top
= 0 psig
or, at TD:
p = 0.052 * EMW * TVD
0
p
o
=0
TVD
p
x
10
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0
EMW, ppg
D
e
p
t
h
,
f
t
Depth
p
EMW
* 052 . 0
=
11
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000
Annulus Pressure, psig
D
e
p
t
h
,
f
tAfter Kick
Before Kick
SICP = 500 psig
12
Gas Migration
Gas generally has a much lower density than
the drilling mud in the well, causing the gas to
rise when the well is shut in.
Since the gas, cannot expand in a closed
wellbore, it will maintain its pressure as it
rises (ignoring temp, fluid loss to formation,
compressibility of gas, mud, and formation)
This causes pressures everywhere in the
wellbore to increase.
13
p
1
= p
2
= p
3
??
14
Gas Migration
Example 1.7: A 0.7 gravity gas bubble
enters the bottom of a 9,000 ft vertical
well when the drill collars are being
pulled through the rotary table.
Flow is noted and the well is shut in with
an initial recorded casing pressure of 50
psig. Influx height is 350 ft.
Mud weight = 9.6 ppg.
15
Gas Migration
Assume surface temperature of 70
o
F.
Temp gradient = 1.1
o
F/100 ft. Surface
pressure = 14 psia
Determine the final casing pressure if
the gas bubble is allowed to reach the
surface without expanding
Determine the pressure and equivalent
density at total depth under these final
conditions
16
Gas Properties at Bottom
First assumption:
BHP is brought to the surface
Pressure at the top of the bubble
P
8,650
= 14 + 50 + 0.052 * 9.6 * (9,000350)
= 4,378 psia
T
9,000
= 70 + (1.1/100) * 9,000 + 460
= 629
o
R
17
Gas Properties at Bottom
p
pc
= 666 psia
T
pc
= 389 deg R
p
pr
= 4,378/666 = 6.57
T
pr
= 629/389 = 1.62
Z = 0.925
pseudocritical  pseudoreduced
18
Bottomhole Pressure
g
= 29*0.7*4,378 / (0.925 * 80.28 * 629)
= 1.90 ppg
Ap
KICK
= 0.052 * 1.9 * 350 = 35 psi
BHP = 4,378 + 35
BHP = 4,413 psia (~surface press.?
ZRT
p
g
g
=
29
19
Pressure at Surface
Assume, at first, that Z
f
= 1.0 (at the surface)
Then,
( ) 460 70 * nR * 0 . 1
V p
629 * nR * 925 . 0
V 378 , 4
ZnRT
pV
o
+
= =
so, p
o
= 3,988 psia (with Temp. corr.)
( ) 460 70 * 0 . 1
p
629 * 925 . 0
378 , 4
o
+
=
BOTTOM
SURFACE
20
Solution with Zfactor Corr.
At surface:
p
pr
= 3,988 / 666 = 6.00
T
pr
= 530 / 389 = 1.36
Z
f
= 0.817
p
0
= 3,258 psia
21
Solution with Zfactor
A few more iterative steps result in
Z
0
= 0.705 and p
0
= 2,812 psia
At the surface
f
= 29*0.7*2,812 / (0.705*80.28*530)
= 1.9 ppg
ZRT
p
g
g
=
29
22
New BHP & EMW
New BHP = 2,812 + 0.052 * 1.9 * 350
+ 0.052 * 9.6 * 8,650
New BHP = 7,165 psia
EMW = (7,165  14)/(0.052 * 9,000)
EMW = 15.3 ppg
23
1. 4,413 psia
2. 4,378
3. 3,988 (T)
4. 3,258 (Z)
5. 2,812 (Z)
6. 2,024 (mud)
24
Compression of Mud in Annulus
v
A
= 0.1 bbl/ft)
AV = compressibility * volume * Ap
= 6 * 10
6
(1/psi) * 0.1(9,000350)*2,626
AV = 13.63 bbls
Initial kick volume = 0.1 * 350 = 35 bbls
New kick volume = 35 + 13.63
= 48.63 bbl
25
Compression of Mud in Annulus
From Boyles Law, pV = const
p
2
* 48.63 = 2,812 * 35
p
2
= 2,024 psia
p
8650
p
oA
p
oB
p
oC
Consider: V,p,Z const. p,Z change mud comp.
2nd iteration ? . 3rd
or, Is there a better way?
26
Gas Migration Rate
A well is shut in after taking a 30 bbl
kick. The SIDPP appears to stabilize at
1,000 psig. One hour later the pressure
is 2,000 psig.
Ann Cap = 0.1 bbl/ft
MW = 14 ppg
TVD = 10,000 ft
27
Gas Migration Rate
How fast is the kick migrating?
What assumptions do we need to make
to analyze this question?
28
1 hr
29
First Attempt
If the kick rises x ft. in 1 hr and the
pressure in the kick = constant, then
the pressure increases everywhere,
Ap = 0.052 * 14 * x
x = (2,000  1,000) / (0.052 * 14)
x = 1,374 ft
Rise velocity = 1,374 ft/hr
30
Gas Migration Rate
Field rule of thumb ~ 1,000 ft/hr
Laboratory studies ~ 2,000 6,000 ft/hr
Who is right?
Field results?
Is the previous calculation correct?
31
Second Attempt
Consider mud compressibility
Ann. capacity = 0.1 bbl/ft * 10,000 ft
= 1,000 bbl of mud
Volume change due to compressibility
and increase in pressure of 1,000 psi,
AV = 6*10
6
(1/psi) * 1,000 psi * 1,000 bbl
= 6 bbl
32
Second Attempt
i.e. gas could expand by 6 bbl, to 36 bbl
Initial kick pressure
=1,000 + 0.052 * 14 * 10,000 (approx.)
= 8,280 psig
= 8,295 psia
33
Second Attempt
A 20% expansion would reduce the
pressure in the kick to ~ 0.8*8,295
= 6,636 psia
= 6,621 psig
So, the kick must have migrated more
than 1,374 ft!
34
Second Attempt
How far did it migrate in 1 hour?
The pressure reduction in kick fluid
= 8,260  6,621=1,659 psi
The kick must therefore have risen an
additional x
2
ft, given by:
1,659 = 0.052 * 14 * x
2
x
2
= 2,279 ft
35
Second Attempt
2nd estimate = 1,374 + 2,279
= 3,653 ft/hr
What if the kick size is only 12 bbl?
What about balooning of the wellbore?
What about fluid loss to permeable
formations? T? Z?...
36
37
Example 1.9
Kick occurs. After shutin, initial csg.
Press = 500 psig. 30 minutes later,
p = 800 psig
What is the slip velocity if the kick
volume remains constant?
MW = 10.0 ppg
38
Simple Solution
( )
( ) ( ) hr t t
ft
psi
g
psi p p
v
1 2
1 2
slip

.

\

=
Ignoring
temperature,
compressibility and
other effects.
( )
5 . 0 0 . 10 052 . 0
500 800
v
slip
=
hr / ft 154 , 1 v
slip
=
What factors affect
gas slip velocity, or
migration rate?
39
Gas slip velocity
The bubble size, and the size of the
gas void fraction, will influence
bubble slip velocity.
The void fraction is defined as the
ratio (or percentage) of the gas
crosssectional area to the total flow
area.
40
Gas slip velocity
41
Gas slip velocity
Bubbles with a void
fraction > 25%
assume a bullet nose
shape and migrate
upwards along the
high side of the
wellbore concurrent
with liquid backflow,
on the opposite side of
the wellbore
42
Gas slip velocity
Large bubbles rise faster than small
bubbles
Other factors:
Density differences
Hole geometry
Mud viscosity
Circulation rate
Hole inclination
One lab study showed max. rate at 45
o
.