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Delay Analysis Techniques

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Contractor Delay:

In construction claims, a Delay is the time during which some part of the construction projects has been extended or not performed due to an unanticipated circumstance.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Disruption and Delay

Disruption is an interruption in the planned work sequence or flow of work. It is distinguished from delay in that the duration of work activities or the overall project completion may not be extended.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Parties Responsible for Delay


Contractor Owner Subcontractors Suppliers Labor unions Utility companies Nature

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Most common causes


Differing site conditions Change in requirements or design Inclement weather Unavailability of labor, material, or equipment Defective plans or specifications, or Owner caused delay: permits, ownersupplied, equipment, materials, ..etc.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Construction Delay Types:

Excusable Delay
Compensable

Delay (EC), Non-compensable Delay (EN)

time+$ time

Nonexcusable Delay (NE)

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Critical and Noncritical Delays


Delays that result in extended project completion are known as critical delays, and Delays that do not extend the project completion date are called noncritical delays.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Critical and Noncritical Delays


a contractor will not be entitled to a time extension for an excusable delay unless the delay extends the overall project completion. an owner-caused delay need not delay the overall contract performance time for a contractor to recover its costs of delay. The delay need only affect the contractor's cost of performance.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Types of Schedules In Court


Network

schedule. Bar charts :


less

effective than network schedules for measuring delays. High visibility of bar charts
Fragnet
Is
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Schedule

a small part of a larger network diagram.


Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University 9

Schedule must be
Reliable Reflect the Intended Plan Approved Free from Mistakes Free from Manipulations.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Ways to prove Schedule Reliability


Show the unaffected part of planned schedule matched the actual progress. Showing how past similar projects were completed as originally schedule. Showing the original sequences or duration match industry standard. A schedule may also be found to be not reliable if the logic dose not consider practical field restraints that control the construction sequence.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Schedule Manipulations
Sometimes difficult to discover. Only an expert scheduler can discover these changes. Hard to convince a judge or jury.

Do

computers lie?

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Schedules Mistakes
Dangling Activity (Open end activities) Fail to tie start of activities with submission shop drawing, approval, fabrication, and material delivery. Contractors fail to recognize and schedule other trade work,

Not providing sufficient mechanical details in a multiple activities.


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March 2007

Schedule Manipulations
Reduced or Increased Activity duration. Manipulated in activities constraints. Manipulation of the activity status or history. Change schedule sequencing. Schedule the activity based on late start.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Concurrent Delay
Delays that occur in parallel path activities in the same time period are classified as concurrent delays. The concurrent delays may be:

all

on critical paths, all on noncritical paths, or distributed between critical paths and noncritical paths.
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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Concurrent Delay
Activity A Activity B Activity C Activity D Activity E Activity F

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Concurrent Delay
Activity A
EC Delay

Delay Activity B

Activity C
Activity D
NE Delay

Activity E Activity F

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Constructive Acceleration
Activity A
EC Activity B CA Activity C Activity D Activity E Activity F Original TF

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Concurrent Delay

Difficulties posed by Concurrent Delay:


Changing

of Critical Path as result of consumption of Total Float. Defining the concurrency period time. Defining the responsibilities of Concurrent Delay.

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Concurrent Delay
Concurrent Delay Any delay concurrent with EN delay Concurrent EC/NE delay
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Remedy (For Critical Activities)

Time extension (EN)


Easy-rule Fair-rule

Time extension Apportionment (EN)


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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Pacing Delay*
Pacing Delay Definition: Deceleration of the project work, by one of the parties to the contract, due to a delay to the end date of the project caused by the other party, so as to maintain steady progress with the revised overall project schedule. *

* Zack, 2000
March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Acceleration in Delay Claims


which
The

activity should be accelerated first:

activity which has owner delayed events, or The activity which has the contractor delayed events, or
The

activity with the most cost savings.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Type Acceleration in Delay Claims


Owner Acceleration (OA). Contractor Acceleration (CA). Schedule Acceleration (SA).

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Delay Analysis Techniques

The most popularly utilized delay analysis techniques are:


Global impact technique, As-Built technique, Adjusted as-built CPM technique, As-Planned technique, Impacted As-Planned Technique

Time impact technique, But-for technique, Window (Snapshot) technique, Isolated Delay Type (IDT), and Window (But-For) technique .
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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Project Start

Time of Project Analysis

Project Finish

PROJECT SCHEDULE
AsPlanned Schedule Start of Analysis Time of Analysis End of Analysis Adjusted Schedule As-Built Schedule

ANALYSIS SCHEDULE
Baseline Schedule Analysis Schedule As-Built Schedule
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March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

Main issues of these techniques.

Distinguish between delay types:


Non-excusable

Delay (NE) Excusable Compensable Delay (EC), and Excusable Non-compensable Delay (EN)

Consider changing of critical path Solve Concurrent Delay issues. Failure to address Pacing Delay.

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March 2007

Global impact technique


Activity
H

Delay Type
NE

Delay
7

E
I J C B L J

NE
NE NE NE EC EC EC

2
7 2 2 6 6 3

J
M
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EN
EN

3
5
31

Total Delay Days 43 Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

As-Planned Techniques (Contractor)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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As-Planned Techniques (Owner)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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As-Built technique

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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As-Built technique

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Adjusted as-built CPM Technique

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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But-for technique (Contractor)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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But-for technique (Owner)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Time impact technique (Activity I)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Time impact technique (Activity I)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Window Snapshot technique (Before)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Window Snapshot technique (After)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Isolated Delay Type (IDT) Technique (Contractor point of view)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Isolated Delay Type (IDT) Technique (Owner point of view)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Window Analysis (But for Contractor)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Window Analysis (But for Owner)

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Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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Weaknesses of Current Delay Analysis Techniques.


Changing of activity criticalities during the project progress, Concurrent delay, Pacing Delay and unfair treatment of Noncritical activities, Difference between project and analysis schedule.

March 2007

Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani, A specialized short course, King Saud University

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