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Basic Principles and Theories (part 1)

Application of mechanical principles in the study of living organisms.

Branch of physics that analyzes the actions of the forces on particles and mechanical systems.

STATICS
Branch of mechanics dealing with systems in a constant state of motion, that is, either at rest or moving with a constant velocity.

DYNAMICS
A branch of mechanics dealing with systems subject to acceleration.

A study of the description of motion including consideration of space and time.

The study of forces associated with motion.

A branch of mechanics that describes the motion of a body, without regard to the forces or torques that may produce the motion.

2 TYPES OF MOTION

Translation
Translation describes a linear motion in which all parts of a rigid body move parallel to and in the same direction as every other part of the body.

Translation
Can occur in either a straight line (rectilinear) or a curved line (curvilinear).

Rotation
Describes an angular motion in which an assumed rigid body moves in a circular path about pivot point or an axis of

rotation.

Rotation
An imaginary line extending through a joint about which rotation occurs. It is the point where motion of the rotating body is zero.

TRANSLATION

Description of Body Movements

OSTEOKINEMATICS
Osteokinematics describes the motion of bones relative to the three cardinal (principal) planes of the body: sagittal, frontal, and horizontal

osteokinematics

The body is in the ANATOMICAL POSITION when standing upright With feet together, hands by the side And face looking forward.
osteokinematics

The mouth is closed and facial expression is neutral

The rim of the bone under the eyes is in the same horizontal plane as the top of the opening to the ear
osteokinematics

and the eyes are open and focused on something in the distance.
The palms of the hands face forward with the fingers straight and together
osteokinematics

and with the pad of the thumb turned 90 to the pads of the fingers. The toes point forward.

osteokinematics

osteokinematics

Cardinal planes

Cardinal planes

Cardinal planes

An imaginary line extending through a joint about which rotation occurs.

osteokinematics

Axis of rotation

Axis of rotation

Plane Sagittal Frontal Transverse

Axis X Z Y

Motions Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation

Number of independent movements allowed at a joint. A joint can have up to three degrees of translation and three degrees of rotation. osteokinematics

degrees of freedom

Indicates the number of permitted planes of angular motion at a joint.

OSTEOKINEMATICS: A MATTER OF PERSPECTIVE


Joint Movement perspectives Relative Segment Kinematics

JOINT MOVEMENT PERSPECTIVE 1. The proximal segment can rotate against the relatively fixed distal segment.
osteokinematics

joint movement perspective

2. The distal segment can rotate against the relatively fixed proximal segment
osteokinematics

osteokinematics

osteokinematics

RELATIVE SEGMENT KINEMATICS

Refers to a series of articulated segment links, such as connected pelvis, thigh, leg, and foot of LE.
osteokinematics

kinematic chain

osteokinematics

kinematic chain

osteokinematics

ARTHROKINEMATICS

Describes the motion that occurs between the articular surfaces of joints.

improves their congruency

arthrokinematics

increases the surface area for dissipating contact forces


arthrokinematics

helps guide the motion between the bones.


arthrokinematics

arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

ROLL
Multiple points along one rotating articular surface contact multiple points on another articular surface.

ANALOGY: A tire rotating across a stretch of pavement.


arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

SLIDE
A single point on one articular surface contacts multiple points on another articular surface.
ANALOGY:
A stationary tire skidding across a stretch of icy pavement.
arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

SPIN
A single point on one articular surface rotates on a single point on another articular surface.
ANALOGY: A rotating toy top on one spot on the floor.
arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

A rolling convex surface typically involves a concurrent, ANALOGY: oppositely A tire on a car that is spinning on a sheet of ice. directed slide.
arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

A classic pathological example of a convex surface rolling without an off-setting slide of the convex surface.
arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

Primary mechanism for joint rotation when the longitudinal axis of long bone intersects the surface of its articular mate at right angles.

arthrokinematics

Fundamental movements

arthrokinematics

Useful for visualizing the arthrokinematics during a movement. Serve as a basis for some manual therapy techniques
arthrokinematics

CONVEX-ON-CONCAVE SURFACE MOVEMENT


If the bone with the convex joint surface moves on the bone with concavity, the convex joint surfaces move in the OPPOSITE direction to the bone segment.

CONCAVE-ON-CONVEX SURFACE MOVEMENT

If the bone with the concavity moves on the convex surface, the concave articular surfaces move in the SAME direction as the bone segment.

Unique position of most joints of the body where the articular surfaces are most congruent, and the ligaments are maximally taut.

Position of most joints of the body where the articular surfaces are least congruent and the ligaments are slackened.