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# The City College of New York

1

Jizhong Xiao
Department of Electrical Engineering
City College of New York
jxiao@ccny.cuny.edu
Inverse Kinematics
Jacobian Matrix
Trajectory Planning
Introduction to ROBOTICS
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Outline

Review
Kinematics Model
Inverse Kinematics
Example
Jacobian Matrix
Singularity
Trajectory Planning

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Review
Steps to derive kinematics model:
Assign D-H coordinates frames
Calculate kinematics matrix
When necessary, Euler angle representation

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Denavit-Hartenberg Convention
Number the joints from 1 to n starting with the base and ending with
the end-effector.
Establish the base coordinate system. Establish a right-handed
orthonormal coordinate system at the supporting base
with axis lying along the axis of motion of joint 1.
Establish joint axis. Align the Z
i
with the axis of motion (rotary or
sliding) of joint i+1.
Establish the origin of the ith coordinate system. Locate the origin of
the ith coordinate at the intersection of the Z
i
& Z
i-1
or at the
intersection of common normal between the Z
i
& Z
i-1
axes and the Z
i

axis.
Establish X
i
axis. Establish or along the
common normal between the Z
i-1
& Z
i
axes when they are parallel.
Establish Y
i
axis. Assign to complete the
right-handed coordinate system.
Find the link and joint parameters
) , , (
0 0 0
Z Y X
i i i i i
Z Z Z Z X =
1 1
/ ) (
i i i i i
X Z X Z Y + = / ) (
0
Z
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Review
Joint angle : the angle of rotation from the X
i-1
axis to
the X
i
i-1
axis. It is the joint variable if
joint i is rotary.
Joint distance : the distance from the origin of the (i-
1) coordinate system to the intersection of the Z
i-1
axis
and the X
i
axis along the Z
i-1
axis. It is the joint
variable if joint i is prismatic.
Link length : the distance from the intersection of the
Z
i-1
axis and the X
i
axis to the origin of the ith
coordinate system along the X
i
axis.
Link twist angle : the angle of rotation from the Z
i-1

axis to the Z
i
i
axis.
i
u
i
d
i
a
i
o
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Review
D-H transformation matrix for adjacent coordinate
frames, i and i-1.
The position and orientation of the i-th frame coordinate
can be expressed in the (i-1)th frame by the following 4
successive elementary transformations:

(
(
(
(

=
=

1 0 0 0
0
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
1 1 1
i i i
i i i i i i i
i i i i i i i
i i i i i i i i
i
i
d C S
S a C S C C S
C a S S S C C
x R a x T z R d z T T
o o
u u o u o u
u u o u o u
o u
Source coordinate
Reference
Coordinate
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Review
Kinematics Equations
chain product of successive coordinate transformation
matrices of
specifies the location of the n-th coordinate frame
w.r.t. the base coordinate system

(

=
(

=
=

1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0
1
2
1
1
0 0
n n n
n
n
n
P a s n P R
T T T T
i
i
T
1
n
T
0
Orientation
matrix
Position
vector
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Review
Forward Kinematics

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

u
|
u
u
u
u
u
u
z
y
x
p
p
p
6
5
4
3
2
1
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
T
Kinematics Transformation
Matrix

+ s s
s s
+ s s
+ + s s
= =
y and x f or
y and x f or
y and x f or
y and x f or
x y a

0 90
90 180
180 90
90 0
) , ( 2 tan
u
u
u
u
u
Why use Euler angle representation?
) , ( 2 tan x y a
What is ?
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Review
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0
0 0
0
u u u

u u u
C C S C S
S C
C S S S C
u | , , , x y z
R R R T =
u | , ,
1
, x y z
R R T R =

(
(
(
(

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
| |
| |
C S
S C
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0
u u
u u
C S
S C
(
(
(
(

1 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 1

C S
S C
(
(
(
(

1 0 0 0
0
0
0
z z z
y y y
x x x
a s n
a s n
a s n
(Equation A)
Yaw-Pitch-Roll Representation
(
(
(
(

+ + +
+
1 0 0 0
0
0
0
XX XX n
a C a S s C s S n C n S
XX XX n S n C
z
y x y x y x
y x
| | | | | |
| |
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Review
0 cos sin = +
y x
n n | |

=
= +
u
u | |
sin
cos sin cos
z
y x
n
n n

= +
= +
| |
| |
sin cos sin
cos cos sin
y x
y x
a a
s s
Compare LHS and RHS of Equation A, we have:
) , ( 2 tan
x y
n n a = |
) sin cos , ( 2 tan
y z z
n n n a + = | | u
) cos sin , cos (sin 2 tan
y x y x
s s a a a + = | | | |
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Inverse Kinematics
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

6
5
4
3
2
1
u
u
u
u
u
u
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
6
0
1 0 0 0
T T T T T T
p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
T
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
=
(
(
(
(

=
Transformation Matrix
Special cases make the closed-form arm solution possible:
1. Three adjacent joint axes intersecting (PUMA, Stanford)
2. Three adjacent joint axes parallel to one another (MINIMOVER)
Robot dependent, Solutions not unique
Systematic closed-form solution in general is not available

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Example
Solving the inverse kinematics of Stanford arm
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
6
0
1 0 0 0
T T T T T T
p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
T
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
=
(
(
(
(

=
6
1
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
6
0
1 1
0
) ( T T T T T T T T = =

(
(
(
(

+

+
=
1 0 0 0
1 1
1 1
6
1
y x
z
y x
p C p S X X X
p X X X
p S p C X X X
T
u u
u u
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
1 . 0
3 2
3 2
X X X
d C X X X
d S X X X
u
u
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Example
Solving the inverse kinematics of Stanford arm
3 2 1 1
sin sin cos d p p
y x
= + u u u
1 . 0 cos
1 1
= +
y x
p p Sin u u
3 2
cos d p
z
= u
Equation (1)
Equation (2)
Equation (3)
In Equ. (1), let
) ( 2 tan , , sin , cos
2 2
x
y
y x y x
p
p
a p p r r p r p = + = = = o o o

=
=
=
2
1
1
1 1
) / 1 . 0 ( 1 ) cos(
1 . 0
) sin(
1 . 0
cos sin cos sin
r
r
r
u o
u o
o u u o
)
1 . 0
1 . 0
( 2 tan ) ( 2 tan
2 2
1

=
r
a
p
p
a
x
y
u
)
sin cos
( 2 tan
1 1
2
z
y x
p
p p
a
u u
u
+
=
2
3
cosu
z
p
d =
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Example
Solving the inverse kinematics of Stanford arm
)
) (
( 2 tan
2 1 1 2
1 1
4
z y x
y x
a S a S a C C
a C a S
a
u u u u
u u
u
+
+
=
(
(
(
(

= =

1 0 0 0
0 0
0
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
5
5
6
5
5
4
6
0
1 1
0
1 2
1
1 3
2
1 4
3
X X
C X X
S X X
T T T T T T T
u
u
0 ) ( ] ) ( [
1 1 4 2 1 1 2 4
= + + +
y x z y x
a C a S C a S a S a C C S u u u u u u u u

+ + =
+ + + =
) ) (
) ( ] ) ( (
2 1 1 2 5
1 1 4 2 1 1 2 4 5
z y x
y x z y x
a C a S a C S C
a C a S S a S a S a C C C S
u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u
From term (3,3)
From term (1,3), (2,3)
) ( 2 tan
5
5
5
u
u
u
C
S
a =
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Example
Solving the inverse kinematics of Stanford arm

+ + + =
+ + + + + + =
) ( ] ) ( [
] ) ( [ )} ( ] ) ( [ {
1 1 4 2 1 1 2 4 6
2 1 1 2 5 1 1 4 2 1 1 2 4 5 6
y x z y x
z y x y x z y x
s C s S C s S s S s C C S C
s C s S s C S S s C s S S s S s S s C C C C S
u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
(
(
(
(

= =

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
6 6
6 6
6
5
6
0
1 1
0
1 2
1
1 3
2
1 4
3
1 5
4
u u
u u
C S
S C
T T T T T T T
) ( 2 tan
6
6
6
u
u
u
C
S
a =
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Jacobian Matrix
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

6
5
4
3
2
1
u
u
u
u
u
u
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

6
5
4
3
2
1
u
u
u
u
u
u

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

u
|
z
y
x
Forward
Inverse
Kinematics
Jacobian Matrix: Relationship between joint
space velocity with task space velocity
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

z
y
x
z
y
x
e
e
e

Jacobian
Matrix
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Jacobian Matrix
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

u
|
z
y
x
1 6
6
5
4
3
2
1
) (

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
q
q
q
q
q
q
h
1 6
6 2 1 6
6 2 1 5
6 2 1 4
6 2 1 3
6 2 1 2
6 2 1 1
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
q q q h
q q q h
q q q h
q q q h
q q q h
q q q h

Forward kinematics
) (
1 1 6
=
n
q h Y
q
dq
q dh
dt
dq
dq
q dh
q h
dt
d
Y
n

) ( ) (
) (
1 1 6
= = =

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

z
y
x
z
y
x
e
e
e

1
2
1
6
) (

(
(
(
(

=
n
n
n
q
q
q
dq
q dh

1 6 1 6
=
n n
q J Y

dq
q dh
J
) (
=
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Jacobian Matrix
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

z
y
x
z
y
x
e
e
e

1
2
1
6
) (

(
(
(
(

=
n
n
n
q
q
q
dq
q dh

n
n
n
n
n
q
h
q
h
q
h
q
h
q
h
q
h
q
h
q
h
q
h
dq
q dh
J

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
6
6
2
6
1
6
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
6
) (

Jacobian is a function of
q, it is not a constant!
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Jacobian Matrix
4 4
6
0
1 0 0 0

(

=
p a s n
T
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
) (
) (
) (
3
2
1
q h
q h
q h
z
y
x
p
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
} , , {
6
5
4
q h
q h
q h
q
q
q
a s n

u
|
(

O
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
V
z
y
x
Y
z
y
x
e
e
e

Forward Kinematics
(
(
(

=
z
y
x
V

(
(
(

= O

u
|

(
(
(
(

= =

) (
) (
) (
) (
6
2
1
1 6
q h
q h
q h
q h Y

1 6 1 6
=
n n
q J Y

## Linear velocity Angular velocity

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Example
2-DOF planar robot arm
Given l
1
, l
2
, Find: J acobian
u
2
u
1
(x , y)
l
2

l
1

(

=
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

) , (
) , (
) sin( sin
) cos( cos
2 1 2
2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1
u u
u u
u u u
u u u
h
h
l l
l l
y
x
(

+ + +
+ +
=
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
) cos( ) cos( cos
) sin( ) sin( sin
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
u u u u u
u u u u u
u u
u u
l l l
l l l
h h
h h
J
(

=
(

=
2
1
u
u

J
y
x
Y
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Jacobian Matrix
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

6 66 2 62 1 61
6 56 2 52 1 51
6 46 2 42 1 41
6 36 2 32 1 31
6 26 2 22 1 21
6 16 2 12 1 11
q J q J q J
q J q J q J
q J q J q J
q J q J q J
q J q J q J
q J q J q J
z
y
x

u
|
(
(
(
(

= =
66 62 61
26 22 21
16 12 11
J J J
J J J
J J J
q J Y

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

6
5
4
3
2
1
q
q
q
q
q
q

Physical Interpretation
How each individual joint
space velocity contribute
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Jacobian Matrix
Inverse Jacobian

Singularity
rank(J)<min{6,n}, Jacobian Matrix is less than full rank
Jacobian is non-invertable
Boundary Singularities: occur when the tool tip is on the surface
of the work envelop.
Interior Singularities: occur inside the work envelope when two
or more of the axes of the robot form a straight line, i.e., collinear

(
(
(
(

= =
66 62 61
26 22 21
16 12 11
J J J
J J J
J J J
q J Y

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

6
5
4
3
2
1
q
q
q
q
q
q

Y J q

1
=
5
q
1
q
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Quiz
Find the singularity configuration of the 2-DOF
planar robot arm
(

+ + +
+ +
=
) cos( ) cos( cos
) sin( ) sin( sin
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
u u u u u
u u u u u
l l l
l l l
J
(

=
(

=
2
1
u
u

J
y
x
Y
u
2
u
1
(x , y)
l
2

l
1

x
Y
=0
V
determinant(J)=0 Not full rank
0
2
= u
Det(J)=0
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24
Jacobian Matrix
Pseudoinverse
Let A be an mxn matrix, and let be the pseudoinverse
of A. If A is of full rank, then can be computed as:

Example:

+
A
+
A

>
=
s
=

+
n m A A A
n m A
n m AA A
A
T T
T T
1
1
1
] [
] [
(

=
(

2
3
0 1 1
2 0 1
x
(
(
(

=
(

(
(
(

= =

+
2 4
5 1
4 1
9
1
2 1
1 5
0 2
1 0
1 1
] [
1
1 T T
AA A A
T
b A x ] 16 , 13 , 5 [ 9 / 1 = =
+
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25
Robot Motion Planning
Path planning
Geometric path
Issues: obstacle avoidance, shortest
path
Trajectory planning,
interpolate or approximate the
desired path by a class of polynomial
functions and generates a sequence of
time-based control set points for the
control of manipulator from the initial
configuration to its destination.

Action Plan
Path Plan
Trajectory
Plan
Controller
Sensor
Robot
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26
Trajectory Planning
sequence of control set points
along desired trajectory
(continuity,
smoothness)
Trajectory
Planner
Path
constraints
Path
specification
)} ( ), ( ), ( { t q t q t q

)} ( ), ( ), ( { t a t v t p
joint space
cartesian space
or
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27
Trajectory planning
Path Profile

Velocity Profile

Acceleration Profile

t0 t1 t2 tf
Time
q(t0)
q(t1)
q(t2)
q(tf)
Initial
Lift-off
Set down
Final
Joint i
t0 t1 t2 tf Time
Speed
t0 t1 t2 tf Time
Acceleration
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28
The boundary conditions
1) Initial position
2) Initial velocity
3) Initial acceleration
4) Lift-off position
5) Continuity in position at t
1
6) Continuity in velocity at t
1
7) Continuity in acceleration at t
1
8) Set-down position
9) Continuity in position at t
2
10) Continuity in velocity at t
2
11) Continuity in acceleration at t
2
12) Final position
13) Final velocity
14) Final acceleration
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29
Requirements
Initial Position
Position (given)
Velocity (given, normally zero)
Acceleration (given, normally zero)
Final Position
Position (given)
Velocity (given, normally zero)
Acceleration (given, normally zero)

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30
Requirements
Intermediate positions
set-down position (given)
set-down position (continuous with previous
trajectory segment)
Velocity (continuous with previous trajectory
segment)
Acceleration (continuous with previous
trajectory segment)
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31
Requirements
Intermediate positions
Lift-off position (given)
Lift-off position (continuous with previous
trajectory segment)
Velocity (continuous with previous trajectory
segment)
Acceleration (continuous with previous
trajectory segment)
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32
Trajectory Planning
n-th order polynomial, must satisfy 14 conditions,
13-th order polynomial

4-3-4 trajectory

3-5-3 trajectory
0
0 1
2
2
13
13
= + + + + a t a t a t a
0 2
2
2
3
3
4
4
20 21
2
22
3
23 2
10 12
2
12
3
13
4
14 1
) (
) (
) (
n n n n n n
a t a t a t a t a t h
a t a t a t a t h
a t a t a t a t a t h
+ + + + =
+ + + =
+ + + + = t0t1, 5 unknow
t1t2, 4 unknow
t2tf, 5 unknow
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33
How to solve the parameters
Handout in the class
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34
Thank you!
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
z
y
Homework 3 posted on the web.
Due: Oct. 7, 2008
No Class on Sept. 30, 2008.
Next class (Oct. 7): Robot Dynamics