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## Electric Power Fundamentals

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Aims of Todays Lecture
Course Training Tours (Find Potential Times)
Part One: Overview of Chapter 1 equations
Discussion of Articles reviewed
A summary of ch. 2 concepts
Effective Values of V and I (rms)
R, L & C in ac circuits
Power Factor
Power Triangle & Power Factor Correction
Three-Wire Single Phase Residential Wiring
Three Phase Systems
Power Supplies and Power Quality
Aims of Todays Lecture (cont)
15 minute stretch break at 6
Part Two: An intro to ch. 3 concepts
Early developments
Electric industry today (NUGS, IPPs, QFs)
Polyphase synchronous generators
Heat engines, steam cycles and efficiencies
GTs, CCs, Baseload Plants and LDCs
T&D
Regulatory impacts (PUHCA, PURPA, FERC)
Chapter 1 Equations
}

=
= = =
=
=
=
=
pdt w Energy
vi
dt
dq
dt
dw
dt
dw
p
v
dq
dw
v
i
dt
dq
i
loop
node
) (
0
0
Chapter 1 Equations (2)
2
2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
:
2
1
:
1 1 1
Li w
dt
di
L v Inductors
Cv w
dt
dv
C i Caps
A
l
R
R R R
R R R
R
v
R i vi p
Gv i
Ri v
parallel
series
= =
= =
=
+ + =
+ + =
= = =
=
=

) ( :
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
v turnsratio v
N
N
v rs Transf orme
C C C
L L L
C C C
L L L
series
parallel
parallel
series
= =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =

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Chapter Two
Effective Values of V and I (rms)
R, L & C in ac circuits
Power Factor
Power Triangle & Power Factor Correction
Three-Wire Single Phase Residential Wiring
Three Phase Systems
Power Supplies and Power Quality

Sinusoidal Sources

T is period of oscillation
f = 1/T (frequency)
Units of Hertz
Cycles per second
e = 2tf
Angular frequency
| = phase angle
Offset from zero
) sin( ) ( | e + = t V t v
m
effective values of periodic waveforms
what is the effective voltage of a
120VAC/60Hz outlet in the walls
of your home and in this building?
What is v(t)?
What is T?
What is e?
What is V
m
?
T = 1/f = 1/60Hz = 16.667msecs
e = 2tf = 2t60 = 377rads/sec
V
m
= ?
) sin( ) ( | e + = t V t v
m
effective values of periodic waveforms
To understand what V
m
might be we
need a good definition of effective
value.
The effective value of a current is the
steady current (dc) that transfers the
same amount of average (real) power as
the given varying current.
The effective value of a voltage is the
steady voltage (dc) that transfers the
same amount of average (real) power as
the given varying voltage.
effective values of periodic waveforms
dt i
T
I
dt i
T
R
R I
R I P
Rdt i
T
P
T
eff
T
eff
eff
T
}
}
}
=
=
=
=
0
2
0
2 2
2
0
2
1
1
effective value: is the
square root of the mean of
the squared values
also known as (a-k-a)
the root-mean-square
avg m avg m avg rms
t V t V v V ) (cos ) cos ( ) (
2 2
2
2
e e = = =
effective values of periodic waveforms
dt i
T
I
dt i
T
R
R I
R I P
Rdt i
T
P
T
eff
T
eff
eff
T
}
}
}
=
=
=
=
0
2
0
2 2
2
0
2
1
1
What is the average
value of the square of
the cosine of a
sinusoid?
2
2
1
) (cos
2
m
m avg m rms
V
V t V V = = = e
By inspection it is ,
going from 0 1 and
back again

effective values of periodic waveforms
2
2
m
rms eff
m
rms eff
V
V V
I
I I
= =
= =
Since 120 & 240VAC are
effective values this means they
are root-mean-square (rms) values
So
What are the amplitudes of these
sinusoidal waveforms if viewed on a
scope?
V
m
of 120VAC = ? LM#1
V
m
of 240VAC = ? LM#2
NOTE:
In practice, electrical engineers must take care to notice (or
determine) whether a sinusoidal voltage is being expressed in
terms of its effective value (rms) or its maximum (V
m
) value
Generally in:
electronics and communications V is V
m
power applications and this course V is V
rms

Also in practice, we treat incoming voltage as having a zero
phase angle unless otherwise specified, current angles are then
expressed w.r.t. voltage

R, L & C in ac circuits
Voltage across resistors is the same as the voltage
supplied by the source
Phase angle of resulting current is the same as
phase angle of the supply voltage
V and I are considered in phase
And V = RI (where V and I are rms values)
Power = VI (and I
2
R, V
2
/R)
Sample problems
An electric water heater element provides 4500
watts of real power at 240VAC, what is its
resistance (and current)?

How much power will it provide if the voltage
sags to 210VAC?
Capacitors
V = ZI = (1/jeC)I (NOTE: Z = - j/eC)
In a purely capacitive circuit the current leads
the voltage by exactly 90
o
(or voltage lags by 90
o
)
Average power dissipated by a capacitor is
zero (stores and releases) ideal
Sample exercise: what is rms current and i(t) in a 5
F capacitor used to balance the power factor on a
motor in the UK (assume 240V/50Hz)

Capacitor example
Sample exercise: what is current in a 5F capacitor used
to balance the power factor on a motor in the UK (assume
240V/50Hz)
V = (1/jeC)I so I = VjeC
= (240)j(2t50)(5x10
-6
) = 0.377j A

A t t i
A t t i
A
rms
)
2
310 cos( 533 . 0 ) (
) 90 310 cos( 533 . 0 ) (
90 377 . 0
t
+ =
+ =
Z = I
You try it capacitor example
Sample exercise: find the rms current and write an
equation for the current as a function of time when a 500
nF capacitor is used in a 120VAC/60Hz system
Remember V = (1/jeC)I so I = VjeC

Inductors
V = ZI = jeLI (NOTE: Z = jeL)
In a purely inductive circuit the voltage leads the current
by exactly 90
o
(or current lags by 90
o
)
Average power dissipated by an inductor is zero
(stores and releases) ideal
if V= 10Z50
o
what does I = ?
I = V/ jeL = V/ j200 = 10Z50
o
/200Z90
o

I = 0.05Z-40
o
A

Impedance (Z) and Reactance (X)
Z = V/I
Z = R + jX
X = eL
or
X = -1/eC
example problem
(very unlikely) for heating and lighting converts to a ground-
source heat pump (a motor and compressor) and compact
fluorescent lights. What happens to its current phase angle if its
impedance (Z) prior was 2O resistive and no reactance and after
has 4O of resistance and 10mH of inductance?
V = 240Z0
o
V, Z = 2Z0
o
O so I = 120Z0
o
A
V = 240Z0
o
V, Z = 4 + j(314)0.01 = 5.09Z38
o
O
so I = V/Z = 240Z0
o
/ 5.09Z38
o
= 47.2Z-38
o
A
Memory aid
ELI the ICE man

For an inductor (L)
E (voltage as in EMF) leads current (I)
same as Current Lags the Voltage
For a capacitor (C)
I (the current) leads E (voltage)
same as Voltage Lags the Current
R, L & C in AC circuits
SUMMARY:
Currents flowing through any of these elements
(R, L & C) will have same frequency as the
voltage supplied by the source
Phase angle shift may result in current depending
on whether there is net L or C in the circuit
Resistive elements are the only circuit
components that dissipate any real energy
Power factor
Typical residential and small commercial watt-
hour meters measure only average power, watts,
also called real power.
Utilities must generate power at the power sources
to cover all the demands for current both real and
reactive.
The power factor is a measure of what part of the
overall power in the system is real

Power factor
Typically, average power, watts, also called real
power is represented by the following equation:
P
avg
= VI cosu = VI x Power Factor
Where u is the phase angle (time shift) between V and I
Therefore, the power factor is identical to:
cos u
PF = cos u
(a) The impedance triangle where Z = R + jX (b) The complex power triangle where S = P + jQ
complex power
complex impedance (Z) triangle
jeL
1/jeC = -j/eC
Power factor phase angle
power factor
since cosine function is even with respect to
positive or negative phase angles:
i.e; cos 45
o
= cos -45
o
we resolve difficulty by labeling power factor as
If u
V
- u
I
> 0 pf is lagging
If u
V
- u
I

NOTE: If pf is leading or lagging THEN the current (I) is
leading or lagging w.r.t. voltage (V) too!
power factor
utilities generally experience lagging power factor due to
motors, flourescent lights, monitors, tvs, appliances, dimmer
switches, a/c
power factor correction is big part of utility planning
activities
complex power triangle
Q = reactive power
P = real power
, ,S, = apparent power
complex power triangle
) sin(
2
I V
m m
I V
Q u u =
2
m m
I V
S =
Q = reactive
P = real
,S, = apparent
) cos(
2
I V
m m
I V
P u u =
units: Watts
units: VARs
units: Volt-Amps
note: u = u
V
- u
I

j

Express S,P &Q with rms values for
V and I LM#6
) sin(
2
I V
m m
I V
Q u u =
2
m m
I V
S =
Q = reactive
P = real
,S, = apparent
) cos(
2
I V
m m
I V
P u u =
units: Watts
units: VARs
units: Volt-Amps
j

note: u = u
V
- u
I

Power factor example
A 240-V induction motor draws 30 amps of
current and delivers 5.4kW of power to the shaft,
show its power triangle:
Real (average) power = 5,400 Watts
Apparent power = (240)(30) = 7,200 Volt-Amps
PF = Real/Apparent = 5.4kW/7.2kW = 0.75
Phase angle = cos
-1
(0.75) = 41.41
o
Draw power triangle and compute reactive power
Power factor correction?
Why correct power factor?
1/5
th
of all grid losses may be due to poor power factor (>\$2B/yr), the
outage of 2003 was made more severe by extremely high reactive
demand, all transformers are rated on kVA not watts, all these
economic, efficiency and reliability benefits can be achieved at a very
low cost
Power factor correction
Adding capacitive impedance in parallel with the load enables the current to
oscillate between the inductors and capacitors rather than being drawn from
the utility system or the customer transformer.
Capacitors are rated by volt-amps-reactive VARs that they supply at the
system voltage in which they are installed, and PF correction is a
straightforward engineering design
Power factor correction example
An industrial customers service entrance substation is rated at
1MVA (1,000kVA) and is at 95% capacity. The plant now
experiences a power factor of 80%. A new manufacturing line is
planned that will increase power demand 125kW. How many
Real power (at present) = (0.8)(0.95)(1,000kVA) = 760kW
Phase angle = cos
-1
(0.8) = 36.87
o
Apparent power = (1,000)(0.95) = 9,500 Volt-Amps
If demand grows from 760kW to 885kW Apparent Power will grow to
Real/PF = 885/(0.8) = 1106kVA > 1MVA capacity
Reactive Power = Q = VI sin u= 1106(0.6) = 664kVAR
PF correction example (cont)
An industrial customers service entrance substation is rated at 1MVA (1,000kVA) and is at 95%
capacity. The plant now experiences a power factor of 80%. A new manufacturing line is planned
that will increase power demand 125kW. How many kVAR of capacitance should be added to avoid
For substation to handle the growth, power factor must improve
to at least PF = 885kW/1,000kVA = 0.885
Phase angle now will be = cos
-1
(0.885) = 27.75
o
Reactive Power (Q) = VI sinu = 1000(0.4656) = 466 kVAR
Difference in reactive power must be supplied by the capacitor
bank: 664 466 = 198 kVAR
Specify a >= 200 kVAR cap bank at industrial customers
service entrance switchgear
3-phase systems
Benefits:
Generators and motors work more efficiently in
torque transfer and have higher stability (they run
smoother and have less vibration)
Transmission benefits include the reduction and/or
cancellation of neutral return currents so that less
wires and/or smaller common neutrals can be used.

3| current

## 240 ) 240 cos( 2

120 ) 120 cos( 2
0 ) cos( 2
Z + =
Z + =
Z =
c m c
b m b
a m a
I t I i
I t I i
I t I i
e
e
e
3| neutral current
) 240 cos( 2
) 120 cos( 2
) cos( 2

+
+ +
+ = + + =
t I
t I
t I i i i i
m
m
m c b a n
e
e
e