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Waste Elimination

Non-Value Adding,but unavoidable


with current technology or methods.
Any work carried out that does not increase
product value
Traditional Focus
Lean Manufacturing
• Work Longer-Harder-Faster
• Improve the Value
• Add People or Equipment Stream to Eliminate
Waste

Value
Waste
Add

LEAD TIME

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Incidental Work (NVA)
E.g. Inspection
Non-Value Adding,but unavoidable
with current technology or methods.
Any work carried out that does not increase
product value

QUALITY PRODUCTS
Defects should never be passed on to the following
process
The idea that defects are the responsibility of inspection
specialists at the end of the line does not exist
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Value Added (VA)
E.g. Good Thinking….

….Good Products
Employees are not expected to simply routinely do
their job but are expected to contribute to the
improvement of their own work operations, utilising
their own personal experience, knowledge and
creativity.

On the remaining slides are brief overviews of some


of the ‘Lean’ Tools

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Kaizen
Kaizen  A common approach
Is the Japanese word for continuous LEAN
improvement & is now a well used  Involve everybody in improvement MANUFACTURE
word around the world which
translates to:  Continuous innovation and change KAIZEN
“The continuous, incremental  Simple, common and easily

& HOUSEKEEPING
ORGANISATION
VISUAL MGT &
improvement of an activity to create

OPERATIONS
understood measures

WORKPLACE
7 WASTES

STANDARD
more value with less waste, giving

CONTROL
quantifiable and sustainable benefit”  Easy to use improvement
tools and techniques
Kai Zen
Building Blocks
Change for the Good

The aim of Kaizen PEOPLE, ORGANISATION & CULTURE

To create an environment of continual improvement, utilising the skills and Focus in the
workplace
GEMBA
abilities of all our people to enable quantifiable and sustainable change,
KAIZEN

whilst focusing on adding value and removing waste to increase customer


STEP 5
REVIEW
satisfaction and profitability.
Kaizen Improvement Board
ACT PLAN STEP 1
PRE DIAGNOSTIC Project Team Members Date Started Measures
QCDP Focus
Area
KAIZEN Objective
Measures Sch Adh
Lead Time

Improvement Concessions
Productivity

Cycle Current Situation Future Situation Dist T rav


Velocity

Tools Used

CHECK DO 5C
7W
STEP 4 Facts Proposal
C/E
5W
AUDIT Main
Causes
Counter
Measure
Counter
Measure
Effect
Proposed
STEP 2 Category of Issue

DIAGNOSTIC 1

Action List
Results / Benefit
2

STEP 3 3
WORKSHOP

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5C Workplace Organisation & Housekeeping
The 5C’s are actually steps of the technique that begin with ‘C’ and are utilised to create a workplace
suited for visual control and lean production by enabling waste elimination, standardisation and continuous
organisation of the workplace.
This technique was first developed
in Japan by Toyota and used 5S’s.
5C is a foundation for
continuous improvement.
Without 5C all other The aim of 5C is to:-
improvements will be lost. Improve the work environment
5S's 5C's Reduce wasteful activities
Seiri Clear Out It is all about Encourage visual controls
Seiton Configure having what Enhance team working
Seiso Clean and check you need to do your job Reduce frustration
Seiketsu Conformity when you need it. Increase efficiency
Shitsuke Custom and Practice No more and no less.
Tools Jig 5, Stage 56

! 1

1
2

2
3

1.Clear Out 2.Configure 3.Clean and Check


Separate the
Separate the essential
essential
A placefor
A place for everything
everything Clean up the workplace & Check
from thenon-essential
from the non-essential and
and everything
everything in its place for opportunities to improve
5C in its place. le
ew P
l

b
na
iv

na ous nt
a iz e
K
e R

i
pm
I

rov
ement C

ta inu me
e
lcy

D
kc

s
o

5.Custom and Practice t


e

4.Conformity Su con ove


C

pr
Ensures we don’t do Make the other C’s part of everyday
what we always did life to maintain improvement
i m
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The 7 Wastes
MUDA is the Japanese word for WASTE. An 8th waste
is the wasted
potential
5 7 2 of people
1 4 3 6
Overproduction To produce sooner,faster
or in greater quantities
Seek it out and get rid!
than customer demand.
Over Processing 1 Inventory
Processing beyond
the standard
required by the
7 2 Raw material,
work in progress
customer. or finished goods
which is not having
value added to it.
Rework
Non right Waiting
first time.
Repetition
6 3 People or parts
or correction that wait for
of a process. a work cycle to
be completed.

Transportation 5 4 Motion
Unnecessary movement
Unnecessary movement of people of people, parts or
or parts between processes. machines within
a process.

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MIFA - Material & Information Flow Analysis

Component / Sub-Assembly forecasts Finished Goods Forecasts Orders

Forecast Company Forecast


Supplier Fax
Production Control
Orders Customer

Weekly Schedule

Goods Process Process Process Process Despatch


Inwards A B C D
I I I I

Days Days Days Days Days Production


Lead Time
Hrs Hrs Hrs Hrs Processing
Time

Raw Materials Components Sub-Assemblies Final Assembly

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Continuous Flow Processing

X BATCH MANUFACTURE

Batch manufacturing is often


organised by grouping processes,
ONE PIECE FLOW

Inventory is eliminated between


processes allowing the product to
however this can inhibit material flow flow through the value stream
WIP builds up

Process Process Process Process


A B C ABC

eg: if the stock between processes The introduction of continuous flow


is three units the following significantly reduces Lead Time
situation would occur
PROCESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9(Time in hrs) PROCESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Time in hrs)
1 1
2 DELAY 2
3 DELAY 3

LEAD TIME = 7 REDUCEDLEAD TIME = 3 HOURS


PARTS WAIT UNTIL PARTS WAIT UNTIL
PREVIOUS PARTS HOURS PREVIOUS PARTS
ARE PROCESSED ARE PROCESSED

Reduced work in progress


Floorspace saving
Benefits of CFP are: Reduced Lead Time
Improved communication
Reduced transportation

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People and Organisation
Lean Transformation:- Lean will touch everyone
Is more than just a new way of manufacturing.
The Change Curve
It is going to challenge & change the whole organisation.

Hidden behaviour Open behaviour


Confidence, Morale
Success depends on the people in the organisation and Stage 1. Stage 4

& Effectiveness
Information De nia Encouragement

t
en
l

i tm
their acceptance and commitment.

m
Fr

e
m

nc
us

Co

a
tra

pt
ce
tio I
Stage 3

Ac
Stage 2.

n r ri
Support g Direction
in

t
lor

at
Management xp

io
Good Quality Product
E

n
Anger Confusion

On time every time Time

Expects Expects Shared Benefits


Looking to the past Looking to the future

Quality products Job security


High productivity Good working environment Customer Service
Leadership
Flexibility Reasonable salary & benefits Build a Partnership
DO it! The WILL
Less firefighting to
Workforce
Improved relationships Change improve
Provide Inspire
the the
Clear and Invest in job creation TOOLS BELIEF
consistent Create a long term future Have the skills for the job
communications Provide everything for the job Involved in problem solving
Create a change environment Work smarter not harder
Encourage innovation Raise & solve problems
Work together for a common goal Create sustainable improvement
Give people more skills Less frustration
Provide the tools to be the best Ownership of cell targets
You’re not a failure Create a safer & cleaner “If we always do what
Team working
if you don’t make it. environment we always did then
Innovative culture
You’re a success We’ll always get what
because you try. we always got”
Change the way you do things, be different - be the best!

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Visual Management and Control
What we can’t
Visual Controls are simple, clear and concise visible see we can’t
indicators such as charts, diagrams, lights, measurements, improve
floor markings,locations and signs.
Always get FUEL GUAGE 24
everyone in
WEEK NO.

MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT SUN

Targets the workplace PLANNED 10 10 10 10 10 10 10


involved
ACTUAL 10 9 11 10
A picture paints
a 1000 words Achievements % COMPLETE
0 25 50 75 100

Visibility of parts
The aim of all these indicators is to make it immediately
status,quantity &
obvious to everyone the current situation or desired status
order level.
of a machine, resource, assembly or cell and to expose the 20

Poka Yoke ABNORMAL undesired status so that action can be taken 20 14


to rectify it immediately.
0 43
:-1 0- 2
in :- 4 :
M axrt No

ar d
M
Pa
Assembly Barchart 42

er C
0
:-1 0- 2

Colour coding
in :- o4 :

Ord
M arxt N
Pa
M
Schedule Start:
Aircraft No.
Schedule Finish:
Build Sequence DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 DAY 5 DAY 6 DAY 7

SHADOWBOARD Operators Date


Actual
12/10
13/10
13/10
14/10
14/10
15/10
15/10
16/10
16/10
17/10
19/10
20/10
20/10
21/10 Every day use of lights being
Assembly
used to display actions, allowing
REMO VE
REMOVE FIT
FROM
Operator No.1 SUBASSY COVER
JIG

you to take control your


LOAD
Assembly
A2 A Operator No.2
MOUNTING

3
Plate
situation.
Handle A Assembly PO SITION
DISMANTLE
RIVET
BXY2 Operator No.3 PLATES
AND
BLOCKS
Vice A A1 1234 (H) DEBURR

1234 Assembly FIT 1 FINAL


GUIDES INSPECT
Operator No.4
A5 A6
Empty

Mandrel
Spanner A4
ABC
AB

5C driven initiative

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Problem Solving
Brainstorming Cause & Effect Analysis
Measurement Method Machinery
This technique can be used to pool together a list of views,
opinions, facts or feelings about a particular issue, or to Wrong Specification Method Sheet After sales service Poor Lighting
generate new ideas that can promote unconventional
‘creative thinking’. All team members have the opportunity In process measuring Method sheets do not No plant maintenance
to share their ideas, which are written down for discussion node contain inspection Spindle Speed
after the brainstorming session has finished. instructions
M/c capability
Gauges not calibrated No visual
standards Out of
specification
Brainstorming helps out of the box thinking which can often measuring equip' parts on
lead to being the most innovative ideas for improvement, or No Budget Lack of Training ineffective CNC103
solving a problem. Shift Changeover
Overloaded
Repairs New measuring
Careless checking Out of date clamping devices
equipment New Operator
Replacements
‘Out of the box’
Foreign bodies found on Raw
thinking Money Manpower Materials Matl'/ M/c

The 5 Why’s Pareto Analysis


The 5 Why’s is simply a way of finding the root cause ParetoAnalysis is a simple but effective problem
of a problem. The technique is essentially a questioning prioritisation tool.
attitude which aims to get to root cause quickly and
simply by asking ‘Why’ 5 times in succession Simply a frequency distribution of attribute data
arranged by category.
Commonly known as "ABC Analysis" or "the 80 / 20 Rule".
Why, Why, Why, Why, Why????
★80% of the wealth is owned by 20 % of the people
A B C
★ 80% of holidays are taken during 20% of the year
1 20
1 00
★ 80% of overtime is worked by 20% of the workers 80
60

Benefits
40

★ Never accept the first answer given when questioning


20
0

to solve a problem, probe by asking ‘WHY’ at least 5 times……….. ★ Its one of the most effective yet simple tools available.
★ An effective ongoing improvement tool.
★ Children are very good at this technique as they are forever ★ Identifies the most significant problems to be worked on first.
asking WHY? And it makes you think and answer. ★ Has varying applications for use in manufacturing.

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Standardised Operations
SIMPLE A method of ensuring manufacturing consistency,
Standard Operations enable
& using less effort and less time to become more
our daily life to become:
SAFE productive and reduce waste.

STANDARD OPERATIONS CHART WORK INSTRUCTION CHART


Work Care
Raw OP 1 OP 2 Step Instruction Notes Points Photo
Material 1
OP3
2
Finished
Goods OP4 OP5
3
The standard operations chart defines
the motion and sequence of operations H&S Quality Knack

Standard Operation sequence help to bring order out of chaos


productivity
High quality
processes
Orderly

Safe operations
High
Standard
quality

training
Good productivity
Safe
operations

Operation
Clear Consistent processes
Sequence
Consistent Good Orderly workplace
workplace Clear training

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Levelled Production
Continuous
Flow Processing The pre-requisite of Just in Time working.
Pull Levelled production maximises the benefits of Just in Time
C F P
Takt time
System by smoothing both the quantity and variety of parts over a
production period.
Levelled Production
Cycle time
30
Mins 20
Non-Levelled Production Levelled Production
10

Mins Overworked Mins


Product

60 60

Under-utilised

Product Product

Avoids overburdening through even distribution of work


Benefits of Production Levelling are:Consistent production supporting customer demand
Improved labour effectiveness
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Pull System
Pull systems rely The system can
on the customer
Supplier Manufacturing site Customer
be thought of
order ‘pulling’ Finished as a chain
Raw
material through materials reaction,initiated
Goods
the production by the customer
system when it withdrawing
is required. parts.
Fill-up Pull KANBAN
Process Process Despatch Kanban is not a system,
Customer
A B Area
but a means of communicating
Levelling Board
customer orders through the
PI PW PI PW
manufacturing process.

There are 3 main types:-


all parts are available in this system (like a supermarket)
Production Instruction Kanban
kanbans are used to authorise replenishment and control build sequence
the rate of production is controlled through the levelling board Parts Withdrawal Kanban
Sequential Pull TabletPW
PI KanbanT
Process Process Despatch
Customer Factors for type of pull
A B Area
Sequential Pull Fill-up Pull
Levelling Board High product variety x
Large product size x
T T T T
Short shelf life x
Manuf LT > Cust LT x
Sequence OK BEST
High variable demand
List Production Control
x
Unreliable process
High piece cost
x
parts are built to order. Customer lead time must exceed production lead time
production is triggered at the point at which the variant is defined, via a sequence list
tablet kanban is used to authorise production or withdrawal, but does not specify variant
FIFO principles must be used to ensure production sequence equals demand sequence

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Takt Time
‘Takt is the German word for ‘beat’ and represents the pace at which the customer
requires the product. Takt is therefore used to determine the rate which parts
have to be produced throughout the shift.
Takt Time = Total production time available* *(does not include breaks,
Total customer demand meetings & clean up time)

eg: Total time available = 5 Hrs Therefore = 5 x 60mins = 300 mins = 30 mins
Customer demand = 10 units takt time 10 units 10 units
This means that each process needs to complete one unit every 30 mins to satisfy the
customer demand of 10 units in 5 hours.
Current Future
Takt allows the work to be
Mins Mins balanced, which frees up
machines and operators.
30 ‘Takt’ Time 30 ‘Takt’ Time

20 Work 20
Balancing
10 10
0 0
A B C D E F A B C D E F
Process Process
Easily managed processes
Employee safety
Benefits of Takt time are: Consistent quality
Improved efficiency
Employee accountability
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Just In Time
What is
Just In Time?
Just In Time is:-
“Manufacturing and conveying
what is needed,
when it is needed,
in the amount that is needed,
at the quality required
and in the
shortest possible lead time”

Continuous JIT has 3 parts,


Flow Processing
based on one
Pull pre-requisite.
C F P Takt time
System

Levelled Production

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“Vision without action is merely a dream. Action without
vision just passes the time. Vision with action can
change the world.”
Author: Joel Barker

“When the winds of change come, some people


build walls, others build windmills.”
Author: Brian Mayne

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