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# Examples

## Losses in Francis turbines

NPSH
Main dimensions

Francis turbines
X blade runner Traditional runner
SVARTISEN
La Grande, Canada
Outlet
draft tube
Outlet
runner
Inlet
runner
Outlet
guide vane
Inlet
guide vane
Hydraulic efficiency
n
u u
h
H g
u c u c

=
2 2 1 1
q
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
3
2
3
3 1
2
1
1
3
2
3
3 1
2
1
1
z
2
c
h g z
2
c
h g
losses z
2
c
h g z
2
c
h g
1
Losses in Francis Turbines
Draft tube
Output Energy
Head [m]
H
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

[
%
]

Losses in Francis Turbines
H
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

[
%
]

Output Energy
Output [%]
Friction losses between runner
and covers
Friction losses
Gap losses
Gap losses

Gap losses
Friction losses in
the spiral casing
and stay vanes
Guide vane losses
Friction losses
Runner losses
Draft tube losses
Relative path
Absolute path with the runner installed
Absolute path without
the runner installed
Velocity triangles
Net Positive Suction Head, NPSH
1
g
c
z
g
c
h h z
g
c
h
b

, + +

+ + = +

+
2 2 2
2
3
3
2
3
3 2
2
2
2
'
2 2
h h h
b
+ =
2 3
2
3
3
2
z z
g
c
h H
s
+

+ =
g 2
c
z H h z
g 2
c
h
2
3
2 s b 2
2
2
2

, + + = +

+
J
J H h
g 2
c
h
s b
2
2
2
+ =

+
NPSH
va s b
h J
g
c
H h h >
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
2
2
2
NPSH
s 2 b
H h h NPSH =
NB:
H
S
has a negative
value in this figure.
A s va b R
NPSH H h h NPSH = <
NPSH required
g
u
b
g
c
a NPSH
m
R

=
2 2
2
2
2
2
25 . 0 b 2 . 0 15 . 0 b 05 . 0 b
0 . 2 a 6 . 1 15 . 1 a 05 . 1 a
Pumps Turbines
< < < <
< < < <
Main dimensions
D
1

D
2

Dimensions of the outlet
Speed
Dimensions of the inlet

Dimensions of the outlet
( )
g
u b u a
g
u
b
g
c
a NPSH
m
R

+
=

=
2
tan
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
|
We assume c
u2
= 0 and choose |
2
and u
2
from NPSH
R
:
13
o
< |
2
< 22
o
(Lowest value for highest head)

35 < u
2
< 43 m/s (Highest value for highest head)
1,05 < a < 1,15
0,05 < b < 0,15
Diameter at the outlet
2 2 2 m
tan u c | =
D
1

D
2

2
2
4
m
c
Q
D

=
t
2
2
2 m 2 m
2
2
D
4 Q
c c
4
D
Q
t

= t =
Connection between c
m2
and choose D
2
:
Speed
Connection between n and choose u
2
:
2
2 2
2
D
60 u
n
60
n D
u
t

=
t
=
Correction of the speed
The speed of the generator is given from the
number of poles and the net frequency
Hz 50 f for
z
3000
n
p
= =
Example
Given data:
Flow rate Q = 71.5 m
3
/s
Head H = 543 m

We choose:
a = 1,10
b = 0,10
|
2
= 22
o

u
2
= 40 m/s
( )
m 8 , 22
g 2
40 1 , 0 22 tan 40 1 , 1
NPSH
2
2
R
=

+
=

Find D
2
from:
2 2 2
2
tan
4 4
| t t

=

=
u
Q
c
Q
D
m
m 37 . 2
22 tan 40
5 , 71 4
D
2
=
t

=

Find speed from:
rpm
D
u
n 322
37 . 2
60 40 60
2
2
=

=
t t
Correct the speed with synchronic speed:
rpm 333
9
3000
n 9 z choose
3 . 9
n
3000
z
K p
p
= = =
= =
We keep the velocity triangle at the outlet:
u
2

w
2

c
2

c
2K

u
2K

|
2

m
n
D n
D
D n D n
D n
D
Q
D n
D
Q
u
c
u
c
K
K
K K
K K
K
K
mK m
35 . 2
333
322
373 . 2
60
4
60
4
tan
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
= =

= = =
t
t
t
t
|
Dimensions of the inlet
( )
2 u 2 1 u 1
2 u 2 1 u 1
h
c u c u 2
H g
c u c u
=

= q
At best efficiency point, c
u2
= 0
1 u 1
1 u 1
h
c u 2
H g
c u
96 , 0 =

= ~ q
1 1
h
1 u
u 2
96 , 0
u 2
c

q
=
We choose: 0,7 < u
1
< 0,75
Diameter at the inlet
D
1

D
2

t

t
= e =
n
60 u
D
2
D
60
2 n
2
D
u
1
1
1 1
1
Height of the inlet
2 2 m 1 1 m
A c A c =
Continuity gives:
We choose: c
m2
= 1,1 c
m1
4
D 1 . 1
D B
2
2
1 1
t
= t
0 1
B B =
Inlet angle
u
1

w
1

c
1

|
1

c
u1

c
m1

1 1
1
1
tan
u
m
c u
c

= |
Example continues
Given data:
Flow rate Q = 71.5 m
3
/s
Head H = 543 m

We choose:
q
h
= 0,96

u
1
= 0,728
c
u2
= 0

66 , 0
728 , 0 2
96 . 0
2
2
1
1 1 1
=

= =
u
c c u
h
u u h
q
q
Diameter at the inlet
s
m
h g u u 15 , 75 543 81 , 9 2 728 , 0 2
1 1
= = =
m
n
u
D 31 , 4
333
60 15 , 75 60
1
1
=

=
t t
D
1

Height of the inlet
B
1

m
D
D
B 35 , 0
31 , 4 4
35 . 2 1 , 1
4
1 , 1
2
1
2
2
1
=

=

=
t
t
Inlet angle
u
1

w
1

c
1

|
1

c
u1

c
m1

s
m
s
m
m
m
u c
c 9 , 13
1 , 1
9 , 40 22 sin
1 , 1
sin
1 , 1
2 2 2
1
=

= =

|
135 , 0
543 81 , 9 2
9 , 13
h g 2
c
c
1 m
1 m
=

=

=

9 . 62
659 , 0 728 , 0
135 , 0
arctan arctan
1 1
1
1
= |
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
u
m
c u
c
|
SVARTISEN