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GSM

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

Concept
GSM900&GSM1800 Co-exist Network
GSM900M&DCS1800M at a certain level are adjacent cells Two cell can Handover, Re-select naturally
GSM1800 GSM1800

GSM900

GSM900

Differences & similarities Between GSM900 & DCS1800


similar network structure similar speech coder similar modulation technique similar signal protocol similar frequency planning tools .........

Different Frequency range Different wireless propagation rule Different coverage Range Different Transmission power .........

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

Network Capacity Development

Dual Band Network Design


Single Band MS

GSM900

Si ng le ba nd

GSM1800
DCS 1st Priority

Du al Ba nd ne tw or k

Dual band MS

Dual Band Network Organization Mode

GSM 900 site


Continuous coverage DCS 1800 site

Discontinuous coverage DCS 1800 site

Dual Band Network Organization Mode


MSC 900 MSC 1800

MSC

MSC

MSC

BTS
BSC 900 BSC 1800 BSC 900 BSC 1800

BSC

BSC

BTS 900

BTS 1800

BTS 900

BTS 1800

BTS 900

BTS 1800

BTS 900

BTS 1800

BTS 900/1800

GSM900/DCS1800 Separately used MSC


900

GSM900/DCS1800 Shared MSC

GSM900/DCS1800 shared MSC+ BSC

GSM900/DCS1800 Shared MSC + BSC + BTS

1800 900MHz equipment

1800MHz equipment

Establishment of Dual Band Network Standard


E T S I published GSM / DCS TCTR (Technical Committee Technical Report) in June 1995

Network Support
MSC process Class Mark 3 ( CM3 ) information
MSC

CM3 information sent during call establish/ handover


BSC

BSC

GSM900 BTS

DCS 1800 BTS

Class Marks
Power class
1 2 3 4 5

GSM 900 Maximum output power -- ---8 W (39 dBm) 5 W (37 dBm) 2 W (33 dBm) 0.8 W (29 dBm)

DCS 1800 Maximum output power 1 W (30 dBm) 0.25 W (24 dBm) 4 W (36 dBm)

Tolerance (dB) for conditions normal extreme 2 2.5 2 2.5 2 2.5 2 2.5 2 2.5

Class Marks

Ideal Dual Band Network Requirements


Ms can Room /support between two different Bands Ms Can Handover Between two bands Traffic Well Balanced Between the Dual Bands

Proper cell reselection and location update


By ensuring speech quality, Dual Band Network has to reduce unnecessary handovers Reliable error correction

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

Wireless propagation Characteristics


1800& 900 have different propagation characteristics. 1800 has higher path loss, about 6-12dB higher than 900. usually around 9dB

Link budget-example
Downlink,from BTS to MS BTS TX Power Combining Loss Duplexer Loss Top of cabinet TX power Feeder Loss BTS antenna gain Total EIRP 42 3 0 39 2 18 55 dBm dB dB dBm dB dBi dBm Uplink,from MS to BTS MS TX Power MS Antenna gain Total EIRP Feeder Loss BTS antenna gain 30 dBm 0 dB 30 dBm 2 dB 18 dBi

MS RX sensitivity MS antenna gain

-100 dBm 0 dB

BTS RX sensitivity Diversity gain

-104 dBm 5 dB
6 dBm 3 dBm 3 dBm 143 dB

Fading margin 6 dBm Fading margin Interference margin 3 dBm Interference margin Antenna body loss 3 dBm Antenna body loss MAX.allowable path loss 143 dB MAX.allowable path loss Link Balance(Downlink-Uplink)=0

Coverage
According to ETSI suggestionFrom coverage point of view, 1800M has about 9dB loss more than 900M, below is the detailed coverage table
Used freque ncy MH z 900 1800 Allowed pass loss dB sensitivity dBm BTS MS Typical cell radius km Propagati on model used Village and Urban other open area areas 19 3 Hata 7 1 Cost231Hata

134 143

-104 -104

-102 -100

Network construction suggestion


According to dual band network propagation model
Principle Dual Band Network Planning GSM900 ensures coverage, DCS1800 takes care of traffic DCS1800 site Layout Choose the site with already existing GSM900 system in order to use the already existing equipment like; tower, room, power etc and serve on the investment
Antenna installation DCS1800 antenna better be 2-3m higher than GSM900 antenna Two systems antenna system azimuth angle needs to be the same to control traffic Horizontal and vertical angle needs to be small and close DCS1800 gain should be 2-5dBi more than GSM900 or equal

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

Introduction to Wireless ParametersCell Selection


Cell selection when MS is switched on or is from the area without service and has entered into the area with coverage service, ms monitors the signal from the cell and

synchronizes, scans different cells BCCH channel and choose the suitable cell
according to cell selection precedence and C1>0

according to cell selection C1 and precedence value, ms

select the cell and the cell becomes the serving cell

Introduction to Wireless parameters C1 Rule


C1 = A- Max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P,0)
A=Received Level Average- RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN P =MS maximum RF power output Unit for the above parameters is dBm C1>0 satisfies standard path loss

Introduction to Wireless parameters CBACBQ


If a certain cell CBQ ,CBA is set to (0,0), then this cell during cell selection has ordinary Precedence, if certain cell CBQ, CBA is set to (1,0) or (1,1), then this cell has lower Precedence
CellBarQualify CellBarAccess Cell Precedence 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Normal Barred Low Low selection Cell status Normal Barred Normal Normal reselection

Introduction to Wireless Parametersexample:1800M Precedence


In order for MS to first select 1800M, 1800M cell has to be set as a normal precedence cell, with: CBQ=0, CBA=0; 900M cell set to lower precedence cell, its CBQ=1, CBA=0
900M CellCBQ = 1CBA = 0C1=15 1800M CellCBQ = 0CBA = 0C1=10

Switched on selecting a cell

C2 = C1 + CRO TO H(PT T) PT 31 C2 = C1 CRO PT=31 CRO = CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET TO = TEMPORARY_OFFSET PT = PENALTY_TIME20s,40s,... TMS Timer For Non service cell H(x) = 0x<0 = 1 x 0 For service cell H(x) = 0

Introduction to Wireless Parameters C2 Rule

C2 Rule can be simplified to C2 = C1 + offset Offset can either be positive or negative

According to coverage, the following are the types of handover


Cell internal Handoverhandover traffic channels belong to the same cell. This kind of handover can be handled by the BSC where the cell belongs; Cell-Cell same BSCtwo cells controlled by same BSC. This kind of handover doesnt need MSC intervention, can be handled by the BSC where the two cell belong BSC- BSC same MSCtwo cell belong to two different BSC which are controlled by one MSC. This type of handover needs participation of MSC and the two BSC MSC-MSCtwo cell belong to two different MSC. This kind of handover needs more than one MSC to handle and the two BSC where the cell belong

Introduction To wireless Parameters Handover

Introduction to Wireless Parameters Handover


The following are the types of Handover according to handover characteristics
Saving handover
Interference handover Strong Handover Quality Handover TA Handover Fast Fading Handover

Better cell handover


PBGT HandoverBetter Cell

Introduction to Wireless Parameters Handover


PBGT(n) = ( RXLEV_NCELL(n) - (RXLEV_DL+PWR_C_D)) - (min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n), P) - min(MS_TXPWR_MAX, P)) MS_TXPWR_MAXMS Max allowed power in the serving cell RXLEV_DLmeasured report average Downlink RXLEV PWR_C_DBTS Max power and BTS Reported power difference MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) MS at the neighbor cell max allowed power PMS max power RXLEV_NCELL(n)Adjacent cell average Downlink RXLEV

Introduction To Wireless Parameters- Handover


ECSC Early Classmark Sending Control
According to GSM standard, when MS has Early Classmark Sending Control, and the network support Early Classmark Sending Control then MS sends Classmark 3information through CLASSMARK CHANGE information during assign, whether network supports Early Classmark Sending Control or not, it is controlled by ECSC parameter. This parameter is broadcast to cell through RIL3_RR SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE3

Introduction To Wireless Parameters Handover


Mult Band Indexes

Introduction to Wireless Parameters Handover


Direct Retry
During assign, if the serving cell do not have free TCH to allocate, and the system uses Direct Retry then MS will be allocated TCH from the adjacent cell in accordance with the MS measurement Report. This is a very special Handover process and can greatly reduce dropped calls. Direct retry can be classified as internal BSC direct retry or inter BSC direct retry, the former doesnt require MSC intervention whilst the latter does.

Introduction to Wireless Parameters Handover


Traffic Handover Why Traffic HandoverThe reason for handover is because the cell have or will have congestion, and the adjacent cell is empty. When MSC is about to decide traffic handover, MSC sends Handover_Candidate_Enquiry information to BSC, ordering a certain number of MS to handover from the original congested cell to the target empty cell Candidate PrincipleBSC chooses the cell with worst service quality among
its cells to become the candidate. Example Denotations evaluations: Up/Downlink quality, Up/Downlink REXLEV, MS-BTS distance, according precedence average

Handover target cell limitCandidate MS adjacent cell measurement Report does not include MSC supplied cell table any cell which cancels candidates seniority Handover time Limit

Fast fading Handover

Introduction to Wireless parameters Handover

If BSC discovers the signal strength of MS is continuously decreasing beyond the threshold T, then fast fading handover can take place, the target handover cell is selected from the related serving cell neighbors

1 Micro 1

A A
High speed MS
3

Micro 2 4

RH TH=-96 dBm RH N=4

Micro2 is defined as serving cell neighbor cell

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

Traffic Control Strategy


The aim of traffic control is:

Traffic Adjustment Principle

Traffic Control often used measures

Control cell selectC1CBACBQ

Control cell ReselectC2

Control Dual Band HandoverPBGTpriority

Traffic Balance1
Through setting of CBACBQ precedence selection DCS1800
Network uses C2 rule as Reselection standard

900M cellC1=15C2=5 1800M cellC1=10 C2=20

Traffic Balance
Other traffic control measures
Traffic handover
Layer control RF control threshold

Direction retry
Wait time

Xian Dual Band Network


Network construction
From December 2002, ZTE constructed Dual Band network for Xian Unicom, up to date Xian DCS1800 network has about 1000TRX/100 sites In the initial network construction, the aim was to balance the traffic using ZTE dual band Network At present the network has two topologies
ZTE GSM900ZTE DCS1800A type Siemens GSM900, ZTE DCS1800B type

Collected sites

Xian Dual Band Network


Traffic BalanceA type Network
Idle mode first select DCS network, D PBGT


1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
ZT E_ DC S SI EM EN S ZT E_ DC S SI EM EN S ZT E_ DC S SI EM EN S ZT E_ DC S SI EM EN S ZT E_ DC S SI EM EN S

ZTE_DCS SIEMENS ZTE_DCS SIEMENS ZTE_DCS SIEMENS ZTE_DCS SIEMENS ZTE_DCS SIEMENS


SDCCH ( ) TCH (Erl) (%) 91.85 % 91.68 % 91.92 % 91.41 % 91.59 % 91.72 % 91.79 % (%)

2003-09-08 10:0011:00 2003-09-09 10:0011:00 2003-09-10 10:0011:00 2003-09-11 10:0011:00 2003-09-12 10:0011:00 2003-09-13 10:0011:00 2003-09-14 10:0011:00

0.26%

213201.00

587.00

0.28%

99.47%

1572.73

1012.00

0.47%

93.24

0.29%

222599.00

624.00

0.28%

99.43%

1631.92

1014.00

0.46%

96.56

0.22%

223967.00

597.00

0.27%

99.51%

1652.17

1048.00

0.47%

94.59

0.12%

243280.00

1013.00

0.42%

99.47%

1818.79

1119.00

0.46%

97.52

0.28%

221836.00

562.00

0.25%

99.47%

1632.34

1005.00

0.45%

97.45

0.06%

139721.00

266.00

0.19%

99.75%

978.16

641.00

0.46%

91.56

0.23%

199751.00

530.00

0.27%

99.50%

1755.10

892.00

0.45%

118.06

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

ZTE BTS1800/900 Equipment


BTS series
3G high power micro BTS BS30(40W)
2G high power micro BTS BS21(40W)

High integration indoor type BTS

Indoor type BTS


Indoor type BTS

Outdoor type BTS


1G micro BTS MB12W

BTS

Satisfy different coverage area requirments

Indoor type Macro BTS V1A


Physical size 1600660550 mm3 (H x W x D) Single shelf supported TRX 6TRX/ 3TRX Power output GSM900/GSM1800 40W/ 80W Receive Sensitivity GSM900/GSM1800 -112dBm Max power consumption 1200W BTS power control 6 level static power controlevery level 2dB 15 level dynamic power controlevery level 2dB Voltage -40~-57VDC 19~29VDC System Maintenance MTBF =120000h Support long distance coverge

V2

Physical size 1600660550 mm3 (H x W x D) Single shelf supported TRX 12TRX/ 6TRX Power output GSM900/GSM1800 40W/ 80W Receive Sensitivity GSM900/GSM1800 -112dBm Max power consumption 2200W BTS power control 6 level static power controlevery level 2dB 15 level dynamic power controlevery level 2dB Voltage -40~-57VDC 19~29VDC System Maintenance MTBF =120000h Support long distance coverge

Contents
Concept Of Dual Band Network Dual Band Network Organization characteristic Dual Band Network Construction Introduction To Dual Band Wireless Parameters Traffic Control Strategy ZTE 1800M Products ZTE GSM1800 Typical Market Share

ZTE Excellent Dual Band Network SchemeTypical Market Share


Shanxi Unicom Example
2003Shanxi Unicom signed GSM1800 contract with ZTE Cover Xian, Baoqi, chengyang and Weinan More than 2000TRX

ZTE Excellent Dual Band Network SchemeTypical Market Share Qinghai unicom Geermu area 1800M from late 2001, Qinghai Unicom and our company singed GSM main equipment, our equipment have excellent performance in Qinghai local network, 144 TRX , 25 sites.
in early 2003 later, Qinghai singed another contract with our company making Ge ermu real dual band network, 72 TRX/12sites.


1800M
20005 GSM 2003 1800M68TRX/10Site 1800

BSS National Market Share

National Market Share


Penetrated 20 provinces

BSS International Market Share


U.K. ZTE U.S.A ZTE ZTE LIBYA CUBA ZTE ZTE NIGER NIGERIA ZTE CONGO ZTE PERU ZTE ZTE CYPRUS ZTE RUSSIA UZBEKISTAN ZTE TAJIKISTAN CHINA IRAN ZTE ZTE ZTE ZTE PAKISTAN MYANMAR ZTE

ETHIOPIA ZTE ZTE SOMALIA EAST TIMOR ZTE

ZAMBIA ZTE

CHILE ZTE

ZTE 1800M equipment in international market, e.g. Nigeria, Russia, Congo, etc are widely used Nigeria 2506TRX/ 324BTS 900/1800Dual band Network Russia 265TRX/47BTS 900/1800Dual Band Network