You are on page 1of 22




Overview of Terminology
Stress: A state of disharmony or a threat to homeostasis -Physiological changes increase alertness, focus, and energy. -Perceived demands may exceed the perceived resources. Coping: The ability to maintain control, think rationally, and problem solve.
Resilience: Resistant quality that permits a person to recovery quickly and thrive in spite of adversity.

Eustress -Manageable Stress can lead to growth and enhanced competence Distress -Uncontrollable, prolonged, or overwhelming stress is destructive. Acute Stress -Immediate response to a threat or challenge Chronic Stress -Ongoing exposure to stress, may seem unrelenting

Symptoms of Stress & Burnout

Causes of Stress
External causes -Family, work, economics, work, school, major life changes, unforeseen events, etc. Internal causes -Worry, uncertainty, fear, attitudes, unrealistic expectations, etc.

Stages of the Stress Response

G e n e r a l A d a p t a t i o n S y n d r o m e (GAS) of Hans Selye (1907-1982)

Alarm, Resistance and Exhaustion are three stages of the stress response. Almost every system can be affected by stress. Alarm -when one feels threatened. -Activation of the fight or flight reaction. Resistance -mobilization of resources to solve the problem. -Continued stress causes adaptation. Exhaustion -Adaptation fails. -Level of function decreases.

Stages of the Stress Response

Stage 1 Alarm Reaction Stage 2 Resistance Stage 3 Exhaustion

Normal Level of Resistance

Stressors & Stress Outcomes

Work Stressors
-Physical environment -Role-related -Interpersonal -Organizational
Individual Differences Consequences of Stress Physiological Behavioral Psychological


Non-work Stressors

Sign & Symptoms of Stress

Cognitive -Decreased concentration, comprehension, & memory. Behavioral -Irritability, withdrawal, violence. Emotional -Fear, anxiety, depression, fatigue. Physiological -Increased BP, HR, Respirations, etc. -Somatic symptoms. -Decreased immune response.

Genetic & Development

Genes control the stress response
-Individuals have different -Responses to stress -Fearful behavior -Anxiety disorders -Neurobiological response

Life experiences can affect a persons stress response. Social support
-Strong support is protective

There is a genetic component to: Early life stress


-Increases stress reactivity as an

Coping & Resilience

Ability to control emotions Ability to perceive reality Ability to think rationally Ability to problem solve Culturally defined

The ability to bounce back The positive capacity to cope with stress Provides resistance to negative events
-Hardiness, -Resourcefulness

Adaptive Coping -Contribute to resolution of the stress response Maladaptive Coping -Strategies that cause further problems Active Coping -Actively seeking resolution to the stress

Promote Adaptive Coping

Realistic expectations -Set realistic goals Planning -Anticipate problems, have a backup plan Reframing -Change the way you look at things Relaxation -Learn relaxation techniques, take time-out for leisure Discuss the problem -Utilize existing social supports to problem solve

Stress & Occupations

Accountant Artist Mechanic Forester Hospital manager Physician (GP) Psychologist School principal Police officer Tel. operator President Waiter/waitress

Low-Stress Occupations

Medium-Stress Occupations

High-Stress Occupations

Types of Behavior Pattern

Type A Behavior Pattern
Talks rapidly
Is devoted to work Is highly competitive

Type B Behavior Pattern

Handles details patiently Is less competitive with others Contemplates issues carefully Has a low concern about time limitations Doesn't feel guilty about relaxing

Struggles to perform several tasks

Has a strong sense of time urgency Is impatient with idleness Loses temper easily Interrupts others

Has a relaxed approach to life Works at a steady pace

Consequences of Stress
Physiological consequences
-cardiovascular diseases -ulcers, sexual dysfunction, headaches, cancer

Behavioral consequences
-work performance, accidents, decisions -absenteeism -- due to sickness and flight -workplace aggression

Psychological Consequences
-moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue

Job Burnout Process

Interpersonal and Role-Related Stressors

Emotional Exhaustion Physiological, psychological, and behavioral consequences


Reduced Personal Accomplishment

Stress Management Practices

Withdrawing from the stressor -Permanent -- transfer to better fit job -Temporary -- work breaks, vacations Changing stress perceptions -Self-efficacy, self-leadership Controlling stress consequences -Fitness and lifestyle programs -Relaxation and meditation -Employee counseling Social support -Emotional and informational

Signature Strengths
o Recognize skills and talents
Inventory strengths

o Use your strengths and talents

Decide what works

o Actively cope
Apply concepts to enable active coping.

o Stress is part of everyday life It can promote growth and competency If unrelenting or overwhelming it can cause adverse effects o Adaptive coping enhances resilience o Maladaptive coping causes additional problems o Enhanced coping increases resilience while diminishing the adverse affects of stress, thus promoting health

Review: Practical Tips

o Set realistic expectations o Exercise regularly o Eat healthy

o Get adequate sleep

o Maintain a work-leisure balance

o Positive Reframing & optimism

o Enhance social support