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Process Industries

Ranjeet Kumar
M.Tech - Chemical

Equation of Energy

A pump converts Electrical energy to Pressure Energy via Kinetic Energy. Electric energy Impeller K.E. Rotating Part Volute K.E Static Part Pressure Energy


Ranjeet Kumar

Types of Pumps

Centrifugal - Impeller & Volute Reciprocating - Piston / Plunger Rotary - Screw, Gear, Lobe, Progressive Cavity,
Sliding Vane

Vertical Peristaltic -

Series of rollers to push through tubing


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Basis for selection of Pump

Capacity No. of pumps in parallel

Total Head No. of stages Physical, Chemical properties of Liquids
Viscosity @ Frictional Loss @ Power Required Corrosive Fluid @ MOC

Site conditions Source of Power

>>>Capacity & Head required are most important selection criteria and define size of the pump. 08-Jun-08 Ranjeet Kumar


Volume of liquid to be pumped in unit time May vary as per Max, Min & Normal requirement design should be for Max capacity. Its function of Impeller size and rotational speed for Centrifugal pump Q=V*A : V=*r


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Centrifugal Pump Design Problem

Inability to deliver the desired flow & head

Seal problems (leakages, loss of flushing, cooling, quenching system,


Pump & Motor bearings related problems (loss of lubrication,

cooling, contamination of oil, abnormal noise, etc)

Leakages from pump casing, very high noise & vibration levels.

Benefits of Centrifugal Pumps low cost, easy maintenance, wide selection, & simple design.
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Head of Pump

Total Head = P discharge P suction Normal head test by vendor was done for water at 20C. Advantages of using Head--


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Physical Properties Consideration

Specific Gravity
1) Increases Power consumed directly. 2) Max suction lift inversely.

Viscosity Pump efficiency decrease directly so Power required directly Open or semi open impeller are better for highly viscose liquid. Volatile liquid at boiling points require high NPSH. Abrasive property of liquid or solid entrainment causes erosion and need specific MOC. Corrosive liquid require specific MOC.
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Solid content

Centrifugal pump operation is most difficult when liquid handled contains solid particles. Special attention required for selecting a centrifugal pump
Open Impeller for solids > 2% Large cross section in Impeller & Volute Min No. of Vanes Inspection holes in tha casing & suction passage Abrasion resistant MOC Smooth corners & edges in lines Stuffing boxes sealed with clear fluid
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a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Fig Types of Impeller

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Temperature of liquid Direct Impact on physical properties of liquid & Vapor Pressure and MOC.


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Site Conditions

Altitude P atm decreases with altitude & P atm has direct effect on NPSHa Gas Dust Hazard if the surrounding atmosphere is hazardous/inflammable Flame proof & Dust proof MOC of Motor. Stand by unit for vital application.


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Selection of Pump
Centrifugal Rotary

Capacity & Head

Upto 7500 m3/h

Head Viscosity Solid

Upto 105 m < 200 cSt Upto 20% Max < 5%

% Gas
< 2% > 2% > 2%

< 350 m3/h 1050 m

Positive < 300 m3/h 10500 Displacement m Peristaltic Upto 1 m3/h < 25 m

< 600 cSt < 25% < 200 cSt


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Flow Rate Design

Margins for rated/maximum capacity

Continuous process pumps Reflux pumps Intermittent pumps Transfer pumps Large cooling water pump Recirculation pump Boiler Feed water pump Waste Heat Boiler pump

10% 20-25% 0% 0-5% 3-5% 0% 25% 30%

PFD indicates normal flow rate without any margin & the Maximum flow is Considered for sizing of the pump with margin 08-Jun-08 Ranjeet Kumar

Minimum flow rate ????

Under development.


Ranjeet Kumar


Static Head
Pump centre line as datum for Hydraulic calculation
Flow Rate (m3/h) 0 100 100 200 Above 200

Pump centre Line from ground (estimated) Pump centre line above ground 0.7 0.9 1.0

Minimum level in Suction & Maximum level in Discharge tank.

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Line Pressure Drop ?

Under development


Ranjeet Kumar


Pressure Drop for Control Valve

The following criteria can be used for sizing the control valve 15~25% of the variable system drop is typically allowed. On recycle and reflux pumps allow 1/3 of the variable system pressure with minimum of 0.7 bar. For liquid system 0.7 bar For system with large variable pressure drop ( >10 bar) ~15% of the variable pressure drop exclusive of control valve


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Pressure Drop for Devices

Devices in Flow Line
Shell & Tube type Heat Exchanger Air cooler

Press Drop (in bar)

0.7 bar per pass in tube side 0.35 0.5 bar per shell 1.0 bar

Y, T or Bucket type Strainer

Orifice Flow meter Venturi Flow Meter Vortex Corilolis Flow Meter Ultrasonic & electromagnetic Flow Meter

0.07 bar (continuous strainer)

0.25 0.02 0.05 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.4 0

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NPSHA = Suction Pressure Vapor Pressure NPSHA should be 2 3 ft more than NPSHR. It is the pressure enough to prevent formation of vapor bubbles due to vaporization or release of dissolved gases in the Impeller. Pressure increases along the impeller on collapse of vapors Cavitation. Cavitation Noise, Vibration, Drop in performance curve, high wear & tear loss.


Ranjeet Kumar


NPSHA optimization

NPSHA can be increased by

Raise the liquid level Lower the pump Reduce the friction losses in the suction line Use a booster pump Sub cool the liquid

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

NPSHR can be reduced by

Slower speed Double-suction impeller Large impeller area Oversize pump Inducers ahead of conventional pump at suction side Several smaller pumps

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)




< NPSHR Ranjeet < NPSHR Reciprocating Centrifuge Kumar


Efficiency = WHP/BHP
Overall efficiency reflects hydraulic, leakage & mechanical losses of pump.

centrifugal < reciprocating < rotary

(50 80%) (50 90%) (70 90%)


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Seals, pumps curves

Under Development..


Ranjeet Kumar