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Kelompok 2: Audrey Monica Brigitta Josopandojo Calvin D Chandra Christiane Karen Malvin Juan Sebastian

A preposition is a word which precedes a noun or a pronoun to show the noun's or the pronoun's relationship to another word in the sentence. The word preposition comes from the idea of being positioned before. It is not true to say that a preposition always precedes a noun or a pronoun, but it does most of the time.

In English, some prepositions are short, mostly containing six letters or fewer. There are, however, many multi-word prepositions. Throughout the history of the English language, new prepositions have come into use, old ones have fallen out of use, and the meanings of existing prepositions have changed. The prepositions generally remain a closed class(is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items).

Single Words Preposition Multiple Words Preposition - Two words - Three words - Preposition + (article) + noun + preposition

- Used to express a surface of something: I put an egg on the kitchen table. - Used to specify days and dates: The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays. - Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer:

My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.

- Used to indicate a part of the body: The stick hit me on my shoulder. - Used to indicate the state of something: Everything in this store is on sale.

At - Used to point out specific time: I will meet you at 12 p.m. - Used to indicate a place:

There is a party at the club house.

- Used to indicate an email address:

Please email me at abc@defg.com.

- Used to indicate an activity: I am good at drawing a portrait.

- Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year: She always reads newspapers in the morning. - Used to indicate a location or place: My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California.

- Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:

This painting is mostly in blue. - Used to express while doing something: In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times. - Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling: I believe in the next life.

a,across,against,along,around,before,between,but,by,f or,from,in,into,over,since,than,towards,with,within,etc. - Some examples of Single Words Preposition The rain pounds against the window. The shuttle runs between the town and the airport. They fought for days over a silly pencil. I prefer the purple over the pink. I have known her since last year. Leave here within three days.

Two words: next to,instead of,out of,rather than,etc.

When you start the next to the last roll, get some more paper. He walked to school instead of taking the car. I'd like a dog rather than a cat. They will soon be out of business.

Three words: as far as,as well as,as opposed to.

As well as the obvious financial benefits, the merger will allow us some breathing room with regards to R&D.

Preposition + (article) + noun + preposition: in case of,on top of,for the sake of,etc.
Release this man, for the sake of justice! I have sorted out the problems and am now on top of the situation.

Conjungtion is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses. A discourse connective is a conjunction joining sentences. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each language. In general, a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it

1. Coordinative Conjunctions 2. Subordinating Conjunctions

Also called coordinators. Coordinative conjunctions are conjunctions that join, or coordinate, two or more items (such as words, main clauses, or sentences) of equal syntactic importance.

Types of Coordinative conjunctions: Cumulative ex : and, also, as well as, both ... and ..., not only..., but also ..., in addition, moreover, furthemore Alternative ex : or, either ... or ..., neither ... or ..., whether ... or ... Adversative ex : but, yet, still, as Illative ex : so, therefore, thus, hence, consequently, as the result, accordingly

Also called subordinators Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that join an independent clause and a dependent clause.

Types of Subordinative conjunctions: Cause ex : because, since, as, for Contrast ex : although, even though, however, though, while, whereas Condition ex : if, unless, provided, whether Manner ex : as, how, in that

Time ex : before, since, until, as,when, as long as, while, as soon as Place ex : where, whereas Purpose ex : so that, that, such...and...that, in order to, in order that comparison ex : as...as, adj+er...than..., more...than...

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun or noun phrase, and thus plays a role similar to that of an adjective or adverb. Participles may correspond to the active voice (active participles), where the modified noun is taken to represent the agent of the action denoted by the verb; or to the passive voice (passive participles), where the modified noun represents the patient (undergoer) of

The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (forms such as writing, singing and raising; these same forms also serve as gerunds and verbal nouns), and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised; regular participles such as the last, as well as some irregular ones, have the same form as the finite past tense).

The present participle, also sometimes called the active, imperfect, or progressive participle, takes the ending -ing. It is identical in form to the gerund (and verbal noun); the term present participle is sometimes used to include the gerund, and the term "gerundparticiple" is also used. The past participle, also sometimes called the passive or perfect participle, is identical to the past tense form (in -ed) in the case of regular verbs, but takes various forms in the case of irregular verbs, such as sung, written, put, gone,

to form the progressive (continuous) aspect: Jim was sleeping. as an adjective phrase modifying a noun phrase: The man sitting over there is my uncle. adverbially, the subject being understood to be the same as that of the main clause: Looking at the plans, I gradually came to see where the problem lay. similarly, but with a different subject, placed before the participle (the nominative absolute construction): He and I having reconciled our differences, the project then proceeded smoothly. more generally as a clause or sentence modifier: Broadly speaking, the project was successful.

to form the perfect aspect: The chicken has eaten. to form the passive voice: The chicken was eaten. as an adjective phrase: The chicken eaten by the children was contaminated. adverbially: Seen from this perspective, the problem presents no easy solution. in a nominative absolute construction, with a subject: The task finished, we returned home.

Both types of participles are also often used as pure adjectives. Present participles are used in their active sense ("an exciting adventure", i.e. one that excites), while past participles are usually used passively ("the attached files", i.e. those that have been attached), although those formed from intransitive verbs may sometimes be used with active meaning ("our fallen comrades", i.e. those who have fallen). Some such adjectives also form adverbs, such as interestingly and excitedly. The gerund is distinct from the present participle in that it (or rather the verb phrase it forms) acts as a noun rather than an adjective or adverb: "I like sleeping'"; "Sleeping is not allowed." There is also a pure verbal noun with the same form ("the breaking of one's vows is not to be