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Chapter 2 CELL DIVISION &REPRODUCTION

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5.1 MITOSIS

The student is able to : LO


1. 2. 3.

4.
5. 6.

State The Necessity For The Production Of New Cells In Organisms Explain The Necessity For The Production Of New Cells Identical To Parent Cells State The Significance Of Mitosis Identify The Phases In The Cell Cycle Explain The Process Of Mitosis And Cytokines Arrange The Various Stages Of Mitosis In The Correct Sequence

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1. The necessity for the production of new cells in organisms (LO) 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS 1.produces new cells for growth in living

multicellular organisms 2. Repair damage tissues. eg liver cells 3. The basis of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms such as Amoeba sp. 4. Ensure that the offspring/new cells are genetically identical to the parent. 5. replaces dead cells. Eg Skin cells
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2.The necessity for the production of new cells identical to parent cells(LO) 1. Species survival 2. preserve the diploid number of 3. 4.
chromosomes preserve the genetic information to preserve the parent characteristics

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Where it all began

You started as a cell smaller than


a period at the end of a sentence
.

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And now look at you

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How did you get from there to here?

THE CELL CYCLE The cell cycle is the period that extends
from the time a new cell is produced until the time the cell completes a cell division The cell cycle can be divided into two major phase: 1. Interphase (G1, S and G2 sub-phases) 2. mitotic cell division or M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)
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Cell division

Cell division can be divided into two stages

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THE CELL CYCLE;INTERPHASE The cell cycle typically lasts from 8 to 24


hours in humans Interphase accounts for about 90% of the cell cycle. At Interphase -cells grow larger and prepare for the cell division -nucleus is big -Chromosomes are not condensed and visible as thread- like structures called AP Biology chromatin

THE CELL CYCLE

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THE CELL CYCLE;INTERPHASE


-a pair of centrosomes( animal only) is also
formed -each centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles -each pair of centrioles will later migrate towards the opposite poles of the cells and help in the formation of the spindle fibres.

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THE CELL CYCLE;INTERPHASE


Divided into 3 phases:

G1 = 1st Gap
cell doing its everyday job cell grows

S = DNA Synthesis
copies chromosomes

G2 = 2nd Gap
prepares for division cell grows produces organelles,

proteins, membranes
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Test your brain!!


1. The diagram shows a cell cycle. Gambarajah menunjukkan kitaran sel What does P represent? Apakah yang diwakili oleh P? A)Cytokinesis B)Mitosis C)Replication D)Duplication Answer/ jawapan: B

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Test your brain!!


2.Mitotic cell division or M phase consists of Pembahagian sel mitosis atau fasa M terdiri daripada iG1 phase iiS phase Iiicytokinesis ivMitosis A)i and ii B)ii and iii C)iii and iV D)i and iv Answer/ jawapan: C

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Test your brain!!


The function of centrioles is for formation of the Fungsi sentriol adalah untuk pembentukan A)Chromosome B)Gene C)Spindle fibre D)Chromatin Answer/ jawapan: C

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Test your brain!!


2.At interphase, the Chromosomes are not condensed and visible as thread- like structures called Pada interfasa, kromosom adalah tidak menebal dan muncul sebagai struktur bebenang yang dipanggil A)Chromosome B)Gene C)Homologous chromosome D)Chromatin Answer/ jawapan: D

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Definition of Mitosis A type of cell division which involves


the division of the nucleus to produce two daughter cells, each contain same number and same kind of chromosomes as the parent cells.

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Places where the mitosis occur during the division of cell all somatic (in animal) cells which are
all body cells except gametes meristem cells ( in plant) at the end of the shoots, the end of roots and cambium.

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Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

-Chromosome= a thread-like structures


in the nucleus of every cell.

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Chromosome DNA & cells

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Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

-Chromosomal number= the number of


chromosomes in each species of an individual organisms is constant -All individuals of the same species have the same chromosomal number -For examples, onion has 16 chromosomes and human has 46 chromosomes

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Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

-Since the chromosomes in the nucleus


exist in pairs, the chromosomal numbers is said to be diploid and is designated as 2n.Thus, Onion 2n= 16, human 2n= 46 -The gametes contain only half the number of chromosomes or only one of each pair of chromosomes. The chromosomal number is said to be haploid and is designated as n. therefore, in an onion n=8 and human n=23.
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Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

A chromosome consists of DNA


molecule and protein. DNA carries the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents A DNA molecule consists of hundreds or thousands of genes. When the chromosomes are not condensed and visible as thread- like structures, they are called chromatin
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Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

During the S phase, the DNA molecule


replicates, forming two identical DNA double helices.

CHROMOSOME DUPLICATION
DNA REPLICATION
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REPLIKASI DNA

KROMOSOM BERGANDA DUA

Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

The replication of DNA produces a duplicated


chromosome with two sister chromatids. In humans, each set consists of 23 chromosomes. The nucleus of a typical human somatic cell has 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs or 2n= 46 chromosomes.
HUMAN CHROMOSOME

KROMOSOM MANUSIA
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Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number

The two chromosomes in each pair have the


same structural features and are referred to as the homologous chromosomes. One of the chromosome is of paternal origin, where as the other is of maternal origin. The cells which have one set of homologous chromosome is said to be diploid or 2n, in which n come from the number of chromosome from maternal and paternal.
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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase Fasa M After the interphase stage, the dividing
cells enter the M phase. -mitosis can be further divided into four phases namely Prophase IN SEQUENCE Metaphase DALAM TURUTAN Anaphase Telophase

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Interphase/ Explanation The chromosomes are not visible but appear as thread-like structures called chromatin.

Kromosom adalah tidak kelihatan tetapi muncul sebagai struktur berbentuk bebenang yang dipanggil kromatin.
Nucleus is large and prominent.

Nucleus adalah besar dan menonjol.


Involves synthesis of protein and organelles, replication of DNA.

Terlibat dalam penghasilan protein dan organel, replikasi DNA.


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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Prophase Explanation Chromosomes in the nucleus condense and become more tightly coiled. Kromosom dalam nukleus menebal dan menjadi lebih terikat ketat. The chromosomes appear shorter and thicker and are visible. Kromosom kelihatan pendek dan menebal serta kelihatan pada mata kasar. Each chromosome now consists of a pair of sister chromatids joined together at the centromere. Setiap kromosom sekarang terdiri daripada sepasang kromatid kembar yang terikat bersama pada sentromer The spindle fibres begin to form and extend between the centrioles. Gentian gelendong mula terbentuk dan memanjang antara sentriol The chromatids are attached to the spindle fibres by their centrioles. Kromatid adalah terikat pada gentian gelendung oleh sentriol. At the end of the prophase, the nucleolus disappears and the nuclear membrane disintegrate. Pada akhir fasa profasa, nukleus menghilang dan membrane nukleus berpecah.
Centriol

Centomere

sentromer

Spindle fibre

Gentian gelendong

Sister chromatid

Kromatid kembar AP Biology

sentriol

THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Metaphase Explanation Begins when the centromeres of all chromosomes are lined up on the metaphase plate. Bermula apabila sentromer bagi semua kromosom adalah menyusun pada Satah khatulistiwa Ends when the centromeres divide Berakhir apabila sentromer membahagi.

Metaphase plate

Satah khatulistiwa

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Anaphase Explanation
Two sister chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere. Dua kromatid kembar pada setiap kromosom berpisah pada sentromer. The sister chromatids are pulled apart to the opposite poles by the shortening of the spindle fibres. Kromatid kembar adalah ditarik ke kutub berlawanan oleh pemendekan gentian gelendung. Once separated, the chromatids are referred to as daughter chromosomes. Apabila sudah berpisah, kromatid adalah dipanggil sebagai kromosom anak. By the end of anaphase, the two poles of the cell have complete and equivalent sets of chromosomes. Pada akhir anafasa, dua kutub sel selesai dan mempunyai set kromosom yang sama.

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Early Telophase Explanation
Begin when the two sets of chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell. Bermula apabila dua set kromosom sampai ke kutub yang berlawanan bagi sel The chromosomes start to uncoil and revert to their extended state (chromatin). Kromosom mula untuk tidak berpintal dan bertukar ke tahap yang dipanjangkan (kromatin) The chromosomes become less visible under the microscope. Kromosom menjadi kurang nampak di bawah mikroskop.

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram LateTelophase Explanation
The spindle fibres disappear and a new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes. Gentian gelendong menghilang dan membrane nucleus yang baru terbentuk di sekeliling setiap set kromosom The nucleolus also re-forms in each nucleus. Nucleus mula terbentuk dalam setiap nucleus.

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase CYTOKINESIS Cytokinesis is the division of the


cytoplasm. Occurs towards the end of telophase In animal cell a cleavage furrow is formed while in plant cell a cell plate is formed.

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The student is able to : LO


arrange the various stages of mitosis in the correct sequence 2. compare and contrast mitosis and cytokinesis in animal cell and plant cell
1.

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Explanation

Gambarajah
Cytokinesis in Animal cell

Penerangan
In animal cell, actin filaments in the cytoplasm contracts to pull a ring of plasma membrane inwards.

Bagi sel haiwan, filament aktin dalam sitoplasma mengecut dan menarik membran plasma ke dalam.
Forming a groove cleavage furrow called a

Membentuk lurah yang dipanggil alur sigaran


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Cytokinesis in animal cells

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THE CELL CYCLE; M phase


Diagram Explanation

Gambarajah
Cytikinesis in Plant cell

Penerangan
1.Vesicle forming a cell plates

Sel tumbuhan

Vesikel membentuk plat sel.


2.The cells plat fuses to form a new cell walls and plasma membranes

Plat sel bercantum membentuk dinding sel dan membrane sel yang baru.

cell plates
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3. Two daughter cell are formed at the end of cytokinesis.

Dua sel anak terbentuk pada akhir sitokinesis.

Cytokinesis in Plants
Plants

vesicles move to equator line up & fuse to form 2 membranes = cell plate
derived

from Golgi

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Cytokinesis in plant cell

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Mitosis in whitefish blastula

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Mitosis in animal cells

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Mitosis in plant cell

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onion root tip

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REMEMBER!
Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
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IPMAT

The student is able to : LO


1. explain the importance of controlled

mitosis 2. explain the effects of uncontrolled mitosis in living things

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The Cell Cycle and Cancer

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There are several factors that regulate the cell cycle and assure a cell divides correctly.
1.Before a cell divides, the DNA is checked to make sure it has replicated correctly. (If DNA does not copy itself correctly, a gene mutation AP Biology occurs.

DNA replication animation:click on DNA picture

2. Chemical Signals tell a cell when to start and stop dividing.

(Target cells animation: click on go sign)

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Neighboring cells communicate with dividing cells to regulate their growth also.

(Normal contact inhibition animation: click on petri dish)

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Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle. Some of the bodys cells divide uncontrollably and tumors form.
Tumors in Liver Tumor in Colon

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DNA mutations disrupt the cell cycle.


Mutations may be caused by: 1. radiation 2. smoking 3. Pollutants 4. chemicals 5. viruses

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While normal cells will stop dividing if there is a mutation in the DNA, cancer cells will continue to divide with mutation.

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Due to DNA mutations, cancer cells ignore the chemical signals that start and stop the cell cycle.

2 animations of cancer cells dividing: click on picture

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Due to DNA mutations, cancer cells cannot communicate with neighboring cells. Cells continue to grow and form tumors.

Skin cancer

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What causes cancer?


Cancer arises from the mutation of a normal
gene. Mutated genes that cause cancer are called oncogenes. It is thought that several mutations need to occur to give rise to cancer Cells that are old or not functioning properly normally self destruct and are replaced by new cells. However, cancerous cells do not self destruct and continue to divide rapidly producing millions of new cancerous cells.

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A factor which brings about a mutation is


called a mutagen.

A mutagen is mutagenic. Any agent that causes cancer is called a


carcinogen and is described as carcinogenic.

So some mutagens are carcinogenic.


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Carcinogens
Ionising radiation X Rays, UV light Chemicals tar from cigarettes

Virus infection papilloma virus can be


responsible for cervical cancer.

Hereditary predisposition Some families


are more susceptible to getting certain cancers. Remember you cant inherit cancer its just that you maybe more susceptible to getting it.
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Benign or malignant?
Benign tumours do not spread from their site of
origin, but can crowd out (squash) surrounding cells eg brain tumour, warts.

Malignant tumours can spread from the original

site and cause secondary tumours. This is called metastasis. They interfere with neighbouring cells and can block blood vessels, the gut, glands, lungs etc.

Why are secondary tumours so bad?


Both types of tumour can tire the body out as they
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both need a huge amount of nutrients to sustain the rapid growth and division of the cells.

4. Spread of mutation

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4. Spread of mutation

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7. Breaking through the membrane

At this point the cancer is still too


small to be detected.

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8. Angiogenesis

Often during the development of earlier stages of the

tumour, or perhaps by the time the tumour has broken through the basement membrane (as pictured above), angiogenesis takes place. Angiogenesis is the recruitment of blood vessels from the network of neighbouring vessels. Without blood and the nutrients it carries, a tumour would be unable to continue growing. With the new blood supply, however, the growth of the tumour accelerates; it soon contains thousand million cells and, now the size of small grape, is large enough to be detected as a lump AP a Biology

9.Invasion and dispersal

The tumour has now invaded the tissue beyond the


basement membrane. Individual cells from the tumour enter into the network of newly formed blood vessels, using these vessels as highways by which they can move to other parts of the body. A tumour as small as a gram can send out a million tumour cells into blood vessels a day. AP Biology

SUMMARY
Normal Cell Division Cancer Cells

1. DNA is replicated
properly. 2. Chemical signals start and stop the cell cycle. 3. Cells communicate with each other so they dont become overcrowded.
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1. Mutations occur in
the DNA when it is replicated. 2. Chemical signals that start and stop the cell cycle are ignored. 3. Cells do not communicate with each other and tumors form.

Treating Cancers
Cancer treatments include drugs that can stop cancer cells from dividing.

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The student is able to : LO


1. describe the application of knowledge on

mitosis in cloning 2. explain the advantages and disadvantages of cloning

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What are clones?

Genetically Identical copies

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Cloning mammals Sexual reproduction produces variation


not clones. Why?

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Identical Twins
Sperm fertilizes egg

Fertilized egg starts to divide into a embryo, but the cells separate and each cell becomes a baby

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Clones can be made naturally


Identical twins are clones of each other
Sperm cell
Baby fertilisation Fertilised egg cell Baby Egg cell
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splits

Twin Welsh Lambs Clones of each other but not of their


parents

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Recently cloned animals

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Dolly The Sheep


Hello Dolly Dolly was the first mammal cloned from an adult cell. She was born in 1996 and died in 2003. She was 6 when she died, about half the usual age for a sheep
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Making Dolly the sheep

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The diagram shows the stages in the cloning of a sheep

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Cloning procedure
1. Somatic cells (from the liver cells) are removed and grown in a culture.
Sel soma (daripada sel hati) dikeluarkan dan dibesarkan dalam kultur. 2.The nucleus is sucked out, leaving the cytoplasm and organnelles without any chromosomes. Nukleus dikeluarkan, meninggalkan sitoplasma dan organel tanpa kromosom. 3.An electrical pulse stimulates the fusion between the somatic cell and the egg cell without nucleus. Isyarat elektrik menggaktifkan pergabungan antara sel soma dengan sel telur tanpa nukleus. 4.The cell divides repeatedly, forming an embryo. Sel membahagi berulang-ulang, membentuk embrio. 5.The embryo is then implanted into surrogate mother. Embrio kemudiannya dilekatkan dalam ibu tumpang. 6.Then, Dolly the cloned sheep of the somatic cell donor is born AP BiologyDolly kambing biri-biri daripada sel soma penderma dilahirkan. Kemudian,

Problems with cloning mammals


Dolly developed premature arthritis and
showed signs of aging too quickly

She died 6 years old which is half the


natural age of a sheep

She is now owned by the National


Museum in Scotland

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PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

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Explanation
1. Wash the tomato plant tissue with hypochloric solution. Basuh tisu pokok tomato dengan larutan hipoklorik. 2. Tomato tissue are cultured in a sterile medium rich in nutrients Tisu adalah dikultur dalam medium yang kaya dengan nutrien 3. After the callus (undifferentiated mass of tissue) is formed, transfer the tissue culture to a new sterile medium rich in nutrients which contain growth hormone. Selepas kalus terbentuk, pindahkan kultur tisu ke dalam tempat medium baru yang kaya dengan nutrient yang mengandungi hormon pembesaran. 4. After the shoots is formed, transfer them into the plant pod Selepas pucuk terbentuk, pindahkan ke pasu.

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Advantages/ kelebihan

Disadvantages/kekurangan

Ensure the continuity of hereditary traits from the parent to the clones. Increase the rate of production and the quality of the products Good qualities of the plants and animals can be selected and maintained in the clones. Many clones are produced in a short time. Can be carried out any time of the year.
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The resistance of the clones towards diseases and pests is the same. If a clone is infected with a disease or attacked by pests then all the clones will also affected and die.

Test your brain!!


The diagram shows the stages in the cloning of a sheep. Gambarajah menunjukkan peringkat-peringkat dalam pengklonan biri- biri

What inference can be made from the above diagram? I. The lamb is produced by asexual reproduction II The nucleus of the egg cell from sheep Q is removed III The characteristics of the lamb are the same as in sheeps P and Q IV The early embryo cells contain similar chromosomes as sheep P A I, II and III only B I, II and IV only C II, III and IV only D I, II, III, and IV Answer/ Jawapan: B
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