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Theory, Application, Skill Development

2d Edition

LEADERSHIP:

Robert N. Lussier Christopher F. Achua Copyrightand 2004 by South-Western, division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.
.

This presentation edited and enhanced by: Asst. Prof. of Mgmt. Clayton College & State University Morrow, GA 30260 georgecrawford@mail.clayton.edu

George W. Crawford

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Chapter 3
Leadership Behavior and Motivation
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Chapter 3 Learning Outcomes


University of Iowa leadership styles University of Michigan and Ohio State University leadership models Ohio State University leadership model and the leadership grid Three content motivation theories Four types of reinforcement Content, process, and reinforcement theories
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Leadership Behavior and Motivation


Focus of this chapter is: importance of

leadership and motivation

Our definition of leadership stressed the importance of influencing others to achieve the organizational objectives through change. High Performance occur when leader create motivational environment that inspire followers to achieve firms goals.
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Leadership Behavior and Motivation


Motivational skills are critical to leadership success. How leaders motivate their workers? Why people leave their jobs? Research shows employees stay if they are satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organizations and leave if they are not satisfied. Poor leaders drive employees to quit.
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Leadership Behavior and Style


Research on leadership had shifted from the trait theory paradigm to the behavioral theory paradigm. Now the focus on what the leader says and does. No leadership behavior were found to be consistently associated with leadership effectiveness.
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Leadership Behavior and Style


Leaders behavior is based on their traits and skills. Different studies shows employees retention is based on relationship between manager and employee. Relationship is based on the managers leadership personality traits and attitudes. Traits and attitudes directly affect leaders behavior with the employees.
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Leadership Behavior and Style


Pygmalion effect is based on traits, attitude expectation, and the leaders treatment (behavior) of employees which determine the followers behavior and performance.
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Different studies confirmed leaders behavior has causal effect on employee performance.
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What is leadership style?


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Leadership Style

The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors leaders use as they interact with followers.
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University of Iowa Leadership Styles


Autocratic...........................Democratic
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Source: Adapted from K. Lewin, R. Lippett, and R.K. White, 1939. Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created Social Climates. Journal of Social Psychology 10:271 301.
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UI Leadership Style
In 1930 Kurt Lewin and his associates identified two styles of leaders. Autocratic Style: leaders make the decisions, tell employees what to do and closely supervises workers. Democratic Style: encourage employees participation in decisions, work with employees to determine what to do and does not closely supervise workers.
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The University of Michigan Leadership Model: Two leadership styles, one dimension
During mid 1940 to 1950 Ohio State and UM conducted joint research on leadership styles. Their study were not based autocratic and democratic style. This study was based on behavior of effective leaders. The behaviors they identified called leadership style today.
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The University of Michigan Leadership Model: Two leadership styles, one dimension
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Job Centered........Employee Centered Leadership Style..Leadership Style


Source: R. Likert, 1961, New Patterns of Management, New York: McGraw-Hill.

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The Ohio State University Leadership Model: Four leadership styles, two dimensions
High
C O N S I D E R A T I O N

Ohio State University


High Structure and High Consideration

Low Structure and High Consideration

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Initiating Structure
Low
Source: R. Likert, 1961, New Patterns of Management, New York: McGraw-Hill.
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High
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What is the best leadership style?


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What is the best leadership style?


The one which works for the individual leader in a specific time and in a specific environment
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Which leadership style do workers think is best?


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Although there is no one best leadership style in all situations, employees are more satisfied with a leader who is high in consideration.
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Blake, Mouton, & McCanse Leadership Grid


High
C O N C E R N P E O P L E Low
Source: Adapted from Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, The Managerial Grid III (Houston: Gulf, 1985); and Robert R. Blake and Anna Adams McCase, Leadership Dilemmas-Grid Solutions (Houston: Gulf, 1991), 29.

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Country Club

Team Leader

9,9

5,5
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Middle of the Road

1,1
1 Low

Impoverished

Authority-Compliance

9,1
CONCERN for PRODUCTION
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9 High

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Team Leadership (9,9)


The goal in leadership development
Few ever reach it

Similar to the philosophy of U.S. Army Training Command . . .


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Mission First, People Always.

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What is Motivation?
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Motivation
Anything that affects behavior in pursuit of a certain outcome
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Motivation Process
People go from need to motive to behavior to
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consequence to satisfaction or dissatisfaction

E.g., we are thirsty (need) and have a drive (motive) to get drink. We get a drink (behavior) that quenches (consequence and satisfaction) our thirst.
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The Motivation Process


Need Motive Behavior Consequence Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction

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Feedback

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Major Motivation Theories


Classification of Motivation Theories
1. Content motivation theories (need motivation)
2. Process motivation theories (choose behavior to fulfill their needs)

Specific Motivation Theory


a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. Two-factor theory c. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Expectancy theory c. Goal-setting theory

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3. Reinforcement theory (behavior can be explained, predicted, and controlled through the consequences for behavior)

Type of Reinforcement
a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment
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What are Content Motivation Theories?


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Content Motivation Theories


Focus on explaining and predicting behavior based on peoples needs
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3 Content Motivation Theories


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Hierarchy of Needs Two-Factor


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Acquired Needs
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What is a Hierarchy of Needs Theory?


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Hierarchy of Needs Theory


Proposes that people are motivated through levels of needs which begin a basic life sustaining needs and progress to life and work satisfaction needs
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What is the Best Known Hierarchy of Needs Theory?


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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


SelfActualization Esteem
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Social Safety
Physiological
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs How Firm meet these needs?


Self-Actualization Needs: Organization
meet these needs by the development of employees skills, the chance to be creative, Copyright 2004 by South-Western, division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. achievement and promotions, and the ability to have complete control over their jobs.

Esteem Needs: Organization meet these

needs through titles, satisfaction of completing the jobs itself, merit pay raises, recognition, challenging task, participation in decision making and change for advancement.
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Social Needs: Organization meet these needs Safety Needs: meet these needs through
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through the opportunity to interact with others, to be accepted, to have friends. Activities include parties, picnics, trips, and sport terms. safe working conditions, salary increases to meet inflation, job security, and fringe benefits (medical insurance/sick pay etc). adequate needs salary, breaks and working conditions.

Physiological Needs: meet these needs

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What is Herzbergs Theory of Motivation?


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Herzbergs Theory of Motivation


In 1960 Herzberg published two factor theory (maintenance and motivators of needs). This theory proposes that people are motivated by motivator rather than maintenance factors. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors
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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of Motivation


Motivator Factors (believes motivation come
from within the person through the work itself)
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Intrinsic (includes achievement recognition, challenge, and advancement. These factors are related to meeting higher-level needs) Satisfied or not satisfied

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of Motivation


Maintenance (Hygiene) Factors
(believes motivation from outside the person and the job itself)

Extrinsic (pay, job security, title, working conditions. These factor related to meeting lower-level needs) Dissatisfied or not dissatisfied
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What is the Acquired Needs Theory of Motivation?


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Acquired Needs Theory


(employees are motivated by their need for:)

Power Affiliation Achievement


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Acquired Needs Theory


Motivating with high Ach: through non Motivating with high power: Let
Motivating with high Aff:
routine work, challenging task with clear attainable objectives. Fast feedback and keep out of their jobs. Copyright 2004 by South-Western, division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. employees plan and control their jobs as much as possible. Give them lot of praise and recognition. Make great buddies and mentors.
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What is the Equity Theory of Motivation?


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Equity Theory
(proposed that employees are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs.)

Our inputs (contributions)

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Others input (contributions) Others outcomes (rewards)


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Our outcomes (rewards)

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What is the Expectancy Theory of Motivation?


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Expectancy Theory
Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort.

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What is the Goal-setting Theory of Motivation?


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Goal-setting Theory
Proposes that specific, difficult goals motivate people
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How Does a Leader Set Meaningful Goals & Objectives to Motivate Subordinates?
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Criteria for Objectives


Singular result
One end result

Specific
Exact performance expected
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Measurable
Observe and measure progress

Target date
Specific completion date
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Other Criteria for Objectives


Difficult but achievable Participatively set Commitment of employees
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behavior, people will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways


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proposes that through the consequences for

What is Reinforcement Theory?

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Reinforcement Theory
Also known as behavior modification Based on studies of B.F. Skinner

Depends on reinforcement

Major topic of study in Psychology

Reinforcement can be

Positive (attractive rewards) Avoidance (avoid negative results) Copyright 2004 by South-Western, division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Extinction (reduce undesirable behavior) Punishment

Continuous Intermittent (the reward is given based on the passage of time or output. E.g., tea break, salary, praise after the achievement)
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You get what you reinforce, not always what you reward!

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How Can a Leader Motivate Using Reinforcement?


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Motivating with Reinforcement


Set clear objectives
Employees must understand what is expected

Use appropriate rewards


Must be seen as rewards

Use the appropriate reinforcement schedule Do not reward unworthy performance Look for the positive Give sincere praise Do things for your employees
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Give Sincere Praise


People will know if you mean it Praise Model (Person to Person)
Tell what was done well Tell why it is important Take a moment of silence Encourage continued good work

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Learn to give praise easily


It is an effective and inexpensive motivational tool
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Which Motivation Theory is the Correct Model?


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All of them None of them None works in all environments, in all situations, or for all people
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Which Motivation Theory is the Correct Model?

Knowledge of all theories will help in determining the correct way to motivate in a given situation
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Leader must be flexible

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Discussion Question #1
How is leadership behavior based on traits?
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Relationship is based on the managers leadership personality traits and attitudes. Traits and attitudes directly affect leaders behavior with the employees.
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Discussion Question #2
Do you agree with the University of Michigan model (with two leadership styles) or with the Ohio State model (with four leadership styles)?
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Discussion Question #3
What are three important contributions of the University of Michigan and Ohio State University studies? The major contribution of these two institutions are: job-centered behavior, employees-centered behavior and participative leadership.
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Discussion Question #4
What are three important contributions of the Leadership Grid and high-high research? High concern-for-people and highconcern-for-production (team leader) leadership style.
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Discussion Question #5
What is motivation, and why is it important to know how to motivate employees?
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Discussion Question #6
Which of the content motivation theories do you prefer? Why? a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. Two-factor theory c. Acquired needs theory
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Discussion Question #7
Which of the three process motivation theories do you prefer? Why? a. Equity theory b. Expectancy theory c. Goal-setting theory
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Discussion Question #8
Reinforcement theory is unethical because it is used to manipulate employees. Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
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Discussion Question #9
Which motivation theory do you feel is the best? Why?
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Goal theory is currently most of the validated research approach to work motivation. Setting the objectives that meet criteria for objectives result in high level of performance.
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Discussion Question #10


What is your motivation theory? What major methods, techniques, and so on, do you plan to use on the job as a manager to increase motivation and performance?
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