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Types of Research

Afizah Syed Alwee 2012432724

Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS.

Types of Research
Research

Quantitative

Qualitative

Experimental Research

Single-Subject Research

Correlational Research

CausalComparative Research

Survey Research

Ethnographic Research

Historical Research

Quantitative vs Qualitative
Quantitative research is Explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods (in particular statistics) Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. Qualitative methods non quantifiable, focus on values, processes, experiences, language and meaning. Data is often words/ text.

Quantitative Research
The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena
Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include:
The generation of models, theories and hypotheses The development of instruments and methods for measurement Experimental control and manipulation of variables Collection of empirical data

Modelling and analysis of data


Evaluation of results

Qualitative Research
Qualitative researchers aim to gather an indepth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
ADVANTAGES Specific research problem Clear independent and dependent variable High level of reliability Minimum personal judgement

DISADVANTAGES
Limited

outcomes due to structured method Unability to control the environment Expensive(large number of respondents)

COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


CHARACTERISTICS

Research Objectives Type Of Research Type Of Questions

QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Discovery of new Validation of ideas,insights facts,estimates, and feelings relationships Usually Descriptive and exploratory causal Openended,semiMostly structured structured, unstructured, probing

COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH contd.


CHARACTERISTICS

Time Of Execution Sample Size Type Of Analyses


Representativeness

QUALITATIVE Short Time Frames Small Subjective, Interpretitive Limited

QUANTITATIVE Usually long time frames Large Statistical,


Descriptive,causal

Good

Experimental Research
Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables.
Advantages
Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships

Disadvantages
Artificiality Feasibility Unethical

Experimental Research
Most conclusive of all scientific methods. The researcher establishes treatments and studies the effects, which can lead to clear interpretations. The independent variable: What is being tested The dependent variable: What is the outcome (i.e., score) Single Subject Research is another form of Experimental Research.

Types of Research
Types of Research Experimental Research Description an objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables. systematic investigation or statistical study of relationships among two or more variables, without necessarily determining cause and effect.
Research that intended to determine the cause for or the consequences of differences between groups of people type of study that uses standard social research methods for evaluative purposes, as a specific research methodology, and as an assessment process that employs special techniques unique to the evaluation of social programs

Correlational Research

Causal-comparative Research

Evaluation Research

Cont
Types of Research
Survey Research Ethnographic Research

Description
Research that obtains data to determine specific characteristic of a group the investigation of a culture through an in-depth study of the members of the culture; it involves the systematic collection, description, and analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behaviour. research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past

Historical Research

Action Research

scientific study and research that seeks to solve practical problems, used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake.

References
L.V. Redman and A.V.H. Mory, The Romance of Research, 1923, p.10 The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1952, p. 1069. Fonollera, Maura B. 1993. Developing competencies in research writing. Manila: Melfon Publishing. Moore, Nick. 2006. How to do research: The complete guide to designing and managing research Projects. 3rd revised edition. London: Library Association Publishers, 2006.