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Mathematic
s
How to Solve
a Problem

## •Which Topic / •Carry out the •Is the answer

•Subtopic ? •Choose suitable calculations reasonable?
•What info has been strategy •Graph sketching
given? •Choose the correct •Any other
•What is to be formula •Creating tables ... methods ??
found?
PAPER 1 FORMAT

##  Objective Test : •Short Questions

 No. of Questions : •25 questions

##  Total Marks : •80

 Duration : •2 hours

##  Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,

Mathematical
Tables, Geometrical sets.
PAPER 2 FORMAT
•Subjective Questions

No. of Questions : A (6), B (4/5), C (2/4)

Total Marks : 100

Duration : 2 hours 30 minutes

L.O.D : L (6) , M(4-5), H(4-5)

Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,
• Mathematical Tables,
• Geometrical sets.
Key towards achieving 1A …

## +(Gunakannya dengan betul !!!)

•Final answer must be in the simplest form

## • (or follow the instruction given in the question)

  3.142
Kunci Mencapai kecemerlangan
•Proper / Correct ways of writing mathematical
notations

•Paper 2 :

## • Sec. A: 8 - 10 minutes for each question

• Sec. B: 15 minutes for each question
• Sec. C: 15 minutes for each question
Common Mistakes…
1. The Quadratic equation 3x2 - 4x = 0

• y = 3x2 + 4x
y = 6x + 4

## 4. sin x = 300 , x = 300 , 1500

5.
Kesilapan Biasa Calon …
• f ' (x) wrongly interpreted as f – 1(x)
and / or conversely

• x2= 4 x = 2

• x2> 4 x > ±2

Common errors…

PA : PB = 2 : 3
then 2PA = 3 PB
Actually, …

PA : PB = 2 : 3

3 PA = 2 PB
More mistakes ……

32 PA2 = 22 PB2

9 PA2 = 4 PB2
Common mistakes …
logax + loga y = 0,
then xy = 0

## It should be… xy = a0= 1

Common mistakes …

## loga(x – 3) = loga x – loga 3

2x x 2y = 1 2x x 2y = 20
x + y = 1 2 x + y = 20

x + y = 0
Common mistakes …
logax + loga y = 0,
then loga xy = 0

So, xy = 0

## It should be… xy = a0= 1

Common mistakes …

sin (x + 0
30 ) = ½,
then sin x + sin 300= ½
…………………gone !

Do NOT use
Sin(A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A
sin B !
Correct way… …

sin (x + 300) = ½ ,
then x +300= 300 , 1500

So, x = 00 , 1200
?
If 00 is an answer, then 3600 is also an
sin (x + 300) = ½ ,
then x +300= 300 , 1500 , 3900

## So, x = 00 , 1200 , 3600

Relationship between Functions and Quadratic
Functions
Domain Codomain
y
X Y
f(x) = x
2

1 1

1 2 4

x
Image
O 1 2
Objec
t
(1, 1) , (2, 4). …. form ordered pairs and can be
plotted to obtain a curve.
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 1
P = { 1, 2, 3}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

## • The relationship between P and Q is defined by the set

of ordered pairs { (1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8)}.
• State
• the image of 1,
• The object of 2. [2 marks]

(a) 2, 4 1
(a) 1 1
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 2

(a) or 0.4 2
B1: or g(x) = 3

 25x2 + 2 2
B1: (5x+1)2 – 2(5x+1) + 3
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 3 (SPM 2005,Q5)
Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1- x)(x+2).
Write your answer correct to four significant figures.
(3 marks)

2.591, - 0.2573 (both + 4 s.f.) 3

B2:

B1: 3x2– 7x – 2 = 0
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 4
The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has
two distinct roots. Find the range of values of p.
(3 marks)

p < -3, p > 5 (kedua-duanya) 3

B2: (p + 3) (p – 5) > 0

## B1: (1 – p)2– 4(1)(4) > 0

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 5

## Given that log 2T - log4 V = 3, express T in terms

of V. (4 marks)
T= 8V½ 4
B1

B2
B3
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 6

## Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 7x (4 marks)

x = 1.677 4
(2x – 1) log 4 = x log 7 B1
2xlog 4 – log 4 = x log 7
2xlog 4 – x log 7 = log 4 B2
x(2 log 4 – log 7 ) = log 4

B3
SPM 2007 (???)
Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 8x (3 marks)

22(2x – 1) = 23x
2(2x – 1) = 3x

4x – 1 = 3x
x = 1
4x – 2 = 3x
No !!!
x = 2
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 7
The first three terms of an A.P.are k-3, k+3, 2k+2.
Find (a) the value of k,
(b) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression.

(3 marks)
(a) 7 2

(k + 3) – (k – 3) = (2k + 2) – (k + 3) B1
6 = k–1

(b) 252 1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 1
Solve the simultaneous equation 4x + y = - 8
and x2+ x – y = 2 (5 marks)

Make x or y the subject P1

Eliminating x or y
K1

## Solving the quadratic equation : K1

x = -2, -3 or y = 0 , 4 N1

y = 0 , 4 or x = -2, -3 N1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2

## The function f(x) = x2 - 4kx + 5k2 + 1has a minimum

value of r2 + 2k , with r and k as constants.

r=k–1 (4 marks)

## • Hence, or otherwise, find the value of k and the

value of r if the graph of the function is symmetrical
about the line x = r2 -1. (4 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2 ***
2(a) Writing f(x) in the form (x – p)2 + q
(x – 2k)2 – 4k2 + 5k2 + 1
K1

Equating q ( q* = r2 + 2k) K1
(k – 1)2 = r2 N1
r= k–1 N1
(b) Equating (his) - (x – p) = 0 K1
Eliminating r or k by
K1 any valid method

k=0,4 N1
r = -1, 3 N1
F4

1. Functions

Given itself.
f (x) = x
x2 - 2 = x
x 2– x – 2 = 0
(x+1)(x-2) = 0
x = -1 , x = 2

## 2. f:x x - 3 , g:x 3x , find gf(1).

Given
f(x) = x – 3, g(x) = 3x
gf (1) = g [ f(1) ]
= g [-2]
= -6
T4
F4BAB 1

## 4. Given f (x) = 3 – 2x, find f -1.

Method 1 Method 2

Let f (x) = y
Let f -1(x) =y
Then 3 – 2x = y
Then x = f (y)
3 – y = 2x

x = 3 – 2y
T4
F4BAB 1

11

## Method 1 (Find f-1 )

Method 2 ( No need f-1 )
Let f -1(x) = y
Then x = f(y) Let f -1(a) = 11
x=
Then a = f (11)
y=
= 8

f-1(a) = = 11

a= 8
T4
F4BAB 1

## Functions : Given composite function and one function,

find the other function.

## f(x) =2 - x , gf(x) = 2x-2

Let f(x) = u
Then u = 2 – x or x=2-u
g(u) = 2(2-u) – 2
= 2-2u
g(x) = 2-2x
fg(x) = f(2-2x)
= 2 - (2-2x)
= 2x
T4
F4BAB 1

## 7. Skecth the graph of y = |3-2x|+1 for domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 4

and state the corresponding range.

## Tips : Sketch y = |3-2x| first !!!

y
6

3
Range : 1≤ y ≤ 6
2

x
0 4
F4

SPM 2004, K1, Q4
Form the quadratic equation which
has the roots – 3 and ½ .

x = – 3 , x = ½

(x+3) (2x – 1) = 0

2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0
F4

ax2 + bx + c = 0

x2 – ( S.O.R) x + (P.O.R.) = 0

S.O.R P.O.R. =
=
F4

## The quadratic ax2 + bx + c= 0 has

equation
1. Two distinct roots if b2 - >0
4ac

4ac

## 3. No real roots if b2 - <0

4ac
**The straight line y = mx -1 is a tangent to the curve

F4

SPM 2004, K1, S5

## Find the range of values of x for which

x(x – 4) ≤ 12

x (x – 4) ≤ 12
x2 – 4x – 12 ≤ 0
(x + 2)(x – 6) ≤ 0

x
-2 6

–2≤ x ≤ 6
F4
Back to
Solve BASIC

x 2 > 4 x> ±2
x2 – 4 > 0 ???
(x + 2)(x – 2) > 0 R.H.S

must be O !
–2 2

x < -2 or x > 2
F4

4. Simultaneous Equations

x + y =1
x2 + 3y2 = 7
Factorisation

## • Solve the simultaneous equations, give your answer

correct to three decimal places.
x +y=1
x2 +3y2 = 8

*** P = Q = R
F4
5. INDICES
Back to basic… …
Solve ..

32(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x) = 1
2x – 2 – 3x = 1
– x = 3
x= –3 Betul
ke ???
F4
5. INDICES

Solve

3 2(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x)
= 1
32x – 2 +(– 3x) = 30
–x–2 =0
x = –2
F4
5. INDICES
Solve

## or… 9x-1 = 27x

3 2(x – 1) = 3 3x

32x – 2 = 33x
2x – 2 = 3x
x = –2
F4
5. INDICES
Solve
2x + 3 = 2x+2
Can U take
2x + 3 = 2x . 22
logon both
2x + 3 = 4 (2x ) sides ???
3 = 3(2x ) WHY?
1 = (2x ) In the form

x = 0 u + 3 = 4u
F4
5. INDICES
Solve the equation ,
give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
[ 4 marks]

9 (3x) = 32 + (3x)
8 (3x) = 32
3x = 4

x = 1.26
(Mid-Yr
F4
5. INDICES
Solve
a mbm = (ab)m
22x . 5x = 0.05

4x . 5x =
You can
also take
20x = log on both
sides.
x = –1
F4 5. INDICES &
LOGARITHMS
(Mid-Yr 07)
Solve the equation
[4
marks]

x–2 = 4 (4 – x)
x = 3.6
F4 5. INDICES &
LOGARITHMS
Back to basic… …
Solve the the equation
log3(x – 4) + log3 (x + 4) = 2

log3(x-4)(x+4) = 2
x2 – 16 = 9
x = 5
F4

## Solve the equation

log34x – log3(2x – 1) = 1

4x = 3(2x – 1)

= 6x – 3

2x = 3

x =
F4

## Given that log3 p = m and log4p = n. Find

logp36 in terms of m and n.

## logp 36 = logp 9 + logp K1

4 = 2log p 3 + logp 4 K1

K1

N1
logaa 1
=
Coordinate Geometry

## Some extra vitamins 4u …

Coordinate Geometry
 Distance between two points
 Division of line segments : midpoints
+ the ratio theorem
 Areas of polygons
 Equation of straight lines
 Parallel and perpendicular lines
 Loci (involving distance between two
points)
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

Solutions to this

question by scale
drawing will not be
accepted.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

## (starting from SPM 2004).

You SHOULD make full use
of the given diagram while
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

## Sketch a simple diagram

required formula
correctly.
6. Coordinate Geometry
6.2.2 Division of a Line Segment
Q divides the line segment PR in the ratio PQ : QR = m : n

R(x2, y2)
n

m n ●
P(x1, y1) m Q(x, y)
Q(x, y) R(x2, y2)

P(x1, y1)

Q(x, y) =
6. Coordinate Geometry (Ratio Theorem)

The point P divides the line segment joining the point M(3,7) and
N(6,2) in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the coordinates of point P.

1 N(6, 2)

P(x, y) P(x, y) =
2

M(3, 7)
=

=
P(x, y) =
6. Coordinate Geometry

Perpendicular lines :
R

m1.m2 = –1 P

Q
S
6. Coordinate Geometry
(SPM 2006, P1, Q12)
Diagram 5 shows the straight line AB which is perpendicular to the straight
line CB at the point B.
The equation of CBis y = 2x – 1 .
Find the coordinates of B. [3 marks]

y mCB= 2

y = 2x – 1 mAB = – ½
A(0, 4)

Equation of AB is y= –½x+4
●B Diagram 5
At B, 2x – 1 = – ½ x + 4

O x x = 2, y = 3
●C So, Bis the point (2, 3).
6. Coordinate Geometry
Given points P(8,0) and Q(0,-6). Find the equation of
the perpendicular bisector of PQ.
y
mPQ=

mAB= K1
O P x
Midpoint of PQ (4, -3)
= Q
K1
The equation 4x + 3y -7 =
: or 0 N1
6 Coordinate Geometry

## TASK: To find the equation of the locus of the moving

point P such that its distances from the points A and B
are in the ratio m : n

## (Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the

distance formula correctly)
6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distances from the points A(-2,3) and B(4, 8) are in the ratio 1 : 2.
(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the distance formula
correctly)

Let P = (x, y)
B(4, 8)

A(-2, 3) 2

1

P(x, y)

## 3x2 + 3y2 + 24x – 8y– 28 = 0

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distance from the point A(-2,3)is always 5 units. (≈ SPM 2005)

A(-2,3)
Let P = (x, y) A(-2, 3)

5

P(x, y)

## is the equation of locus of P.

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of point Pwhich moves such that
it is always equidistant from points A(-2, 3) and B(4, 9).

## Constraint / Condition : B(4, 9)

PA = PB
A(-2, 3)
PA2 = PB2 ●
(x+2)2 + (y – 3)2 = (x – 4)2 + (y – 9)2 ● P(x, y)

locus of P.

## Note : This locus is actually the perpendicular bisector of AB

Solutions to this question by scale drawing will not be accepted.
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9)
Diagram 3 shows the triangle AOB where Ois the origin.
Point C lies on the straight line AB.
A(-3, 4) y

Diagram 3
C

x
O

B(6, -2)

## (a) Calculate the area, in units2, of triangle AOB. [2 marks]

(b) Given that AC : CB = 3 : 2, find the coordinates of C. [2 marks]
• A point P moves such that its distance from point A is always twice its
distance from point B.
(i) Find the equation of locus of P,
(ii) Hence, determine whether or not this locus intercepts the y-axis.
[6 marks]
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9): ANSWERS
A(-3, 4) y

3
Diagram 3
C
● 2
x
O
9(a) K1 ●
B(6, -2)
N1 Use formula
= 9
To find area

9(b)
K1
Use formula correctly

N1
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9): ANSWERS

A(-3, 4) y
● 2
● P(x, y)
9(c) (i) C
● 1
O x
AP = ●
B(6, -2)
K1
Use distance
formula
AP = 2PB
K1
AP2 = 4 PB2
Use AP = 2PB
(x+3)2 + (y – 4 )2 = 4 [(x – 6)2+ (y + 2)2

x2 + y2– 18x + 8y + 45 = 0 N1

(SPM 2006, P2, Q9): ANSWERS

Use b2 – 4ac = 0
or AOM

√ (his locus

& b2 – 4ac)
F4

## 6. Coordinate Geometry : the equation of locus

Given that A(-1,-2) and B(2,1) are fixed points . Point P movessuch
that the ratio of AP to PB is 1 : 2. Find the equation of locus for P.

2AP = PB

K1

## 3x2 + 3y2 + 12x + 18y + 15 = N1

0
x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 5 =
0
F4

Statistics
From a given set of data,
Marks f (e.g. The frequency distribution
of marks of a group of students)
6-10 12
11-15 20 Students should be able to find ….
16-20 27 • the mean, mode & median
21-25 16 • Q1, Q3 and IQR
• the variance & S.Deviations
26-30 13
•Construct a CFT and draw an ogive
31-35 10 •Use the ogive to solve related
problems
36-40 2
Total 100
F5
To estimate median from Graph For Question 6(b)

Histogram
Number of people

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
33.5

## 0.5 20.5 40.5 60.5 80.5 100.5 Age

Modal age = 33.5
F4 CHAPTER 8

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

 S = rθ (θ must be in
θ
 A = ½ r2 θ

## Always refer to diagram when answering this question.

F4

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

## Diagram shows a sector of a circle A

OABC with centre O and radius 4
B 0.8c O
cm.Given that AOC = 0.8 radians,
find the area of the shaded region.
C

K1
Area of sector = ½ x 42 x 0.8
OABC = 6.4 cm 2
K1
Area of triangle = ½ x 42 x sin 0.8
OAC In radians !!!!
= 5.7388 cm2
K1
Area of shaded = 6.4 –
region 5.7388 N1

= 0.6612 cm2
F4

DIFFERENTIATION :

F4

## Given that f(x) = x3 + x2 – 4x +

5, find the value of f ” (1)

f’ (x) = 3x2 + 2x –

f” (x) = 6x +
2

f” (1) = 8
F4

” (1) .

Ya
ke ??
F4- 9

” (-1) .

## g’ (x) = 10x (x2 +

1)4
g’’ (x) = 10x . 4(x2 + 1) 3.2x +(x2+1)4.
10
g’’ (-1) = 10(-1) . 4[(-1)2 + 1] 3
+[(-1)2+1)4. 10

F4

## Given that y = 2x3 – x2 + 4, find the value of at

the point (2, 16). Hence, find the small
increment in xwhich causes y to increase from 16
to 16.05.

= 6x2 – 2x

= 20 , x= K1
2

K1

N1
F5

## Progressions : A.P &

G.P
A.P. : a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d ,…
…..
Most important is “d”

## G.P. : a, ar, ar2, ar3,……..

Most important is “ r
” !!
F5

## Progressions : G.P - Recurring Decimals

SPM 2004, P1, Q12
Express the recurring decimal
0.969696 … as a fraction in the
simplest form.

x = 0. 96 96 96 … (1)
100x = 96. 96 96 ….. (2)
(2) – (1) 99x = 96
x= =
F5 Back to basic… …

Progressions
Given that Sn = 5n – n2 , find the sum from
the 5th to the 10th terms of the progression.

S10 – S5 = ……. ???
S10 – S4
Ans :-
54
F5

Linear Law

1-2

## 4. Line of best fit 1

5. Use of Y-intercept to determine
X value of constant
2-4
6. Use of gradient to determine
another constant
F5

Linear Law
Bear in mind that …......

## 1. Scale must be uniform

Y 2. Scale of both axes may defer :
FOLLOW given instructions !

## 3. Horizontal axis should start from

0 !
4. Plot ……… against ……….
X

Axis
Linear law
F5
Y
4.5
x

3.5

x
3.0

x
2.5

2.5 x

1.5
x

1.0
x

0.5

## Read this value !!!!!

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x
F5

INTEGRATION

=
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2003, P2, Q3(a) 3 marks
Given that = 2x + 2 and y= 6 when x= – 1, find
y in terms of x.

Answer: = 2x + 2

y =

= x2+ 2x + c

x = -1, y = 6: 6 = 1 +2 + c
c = 3

Hence y = x2 + 2x + 3
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2004, K2, S3(a) 3 marks
The gradient function of a curve which passes through
A(1, -12) is 3x2 – 6. Find the equation of the curve.

Answer: = 3x2 – 6

= x3– 6x + c Function
x = 1, y = – 12 : – 12 = 1 – 6 + c
c = –7
Hence y = x3 – 6 x – 7
F5

## Vectors : Unit Vectors

Given that OA = 2i + j and OB = 6i + 4j, find
B the unit vectorin the direction of AB

AB = OB - OA
= ( 6i + 4j ) – ( 2i + j )
A = 4i + 3j K1

l AB l =

= 5

## Unit vector in the direction of AB = K1 N1

F5

Parallel vectors
Given that a and bare parallel vectors, with
a = (m-4)i +2 j and b= -2i + mj. Find the the value of
m.

a=kb

a= b
(m-4) i + 2 j = k (-2i + mj) K1

m- 4 = -2k 1

mk = 2 2 K1

m=2 N1
F5
5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

## tan2 x – sin2 x = sin 2x K1

K1

N1
F5
5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

## Solve the equation 2 cos 2x + 3 sin x - 2

=0
2( 1 - 2sin2 x) + 3 sin x - 2 = 0 K1

-4 sin2 x + 3 sin x = 0

sin x( -4 sin x + 3 ) = 0 K1

sin x= 0 sin x =
,

F5

## 1. Sketch given graph : (4 marks)

(2003) y = 2 cos x,

## (2004) y = cos 2x for

(2005) y = cos 2x ,
(2006) y = – 2 cos x ,
F5 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

## Find the number of four digit numbers

exceeding 3000 which can be formed from
the numbers 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 if each number is
allowed to be used once only.

No. of ways = 4. 4. 3.
2 = 96

3, 6, 8,
9
F5

## Find the number of ways the word BESTARIcan

be arranged so that the vowels and consonants
alternate with each other
[ 3 marks ]

Vowels : E, A, I
Consonants : B, S, T, R
Arrangements : C V C V C V C

No. of ways = 4! 3 !
= 144
F5
Two unbiased dice are tossed.
Find the probability that the sum of the
two numbers obtained is more than 4.
Dice B, y
n(S) = 6 x 6 = 36
6 X X X X X X Constraint : x + y > 4
5 X X X X X X
Draw the line x + y = 4
4 X X X X X X

3 X X X X X X We need : x + y > 4
2 X X X X X X P( x + y > 4) = 1 –
1 X X X X X X

Dice A, x =
1 2 3 4 5 6
F5

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

## The Binomial Distribution

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, …..n p+q=1

## n = Total number of trials

r = No. of ‘successes’
p = Probability of ‘success’
q = probability of ‘failure’ Mean = np

Variance = npq
F5

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

## The NORMAL Distribution

Candidates must be able to … f(z)

Z =
z
00 0.5

(probabilities)
T5

## f(z) f(z) f(z)

= 1 – –

z z z
-1.5 0 1 0 1 0 1.5
F4

Index Numbers

Index Number =

Composite Index =

Problems of index numbers involving
two or more basic years.
Solution of Triangles
The Sine Rule

## The Cosine Rule

Area of Triangles

Problems in 3-Dimensions.

## Ambiguity cases (More than ONE

Motion in a Straight Line

## •Initial displacement, velocity, acceleration...

•Particle returns to starting point O...

## •Particle moves with constant velocity...

Motion in a Straight Line

Question involving motion of TWO particles.
• ... When both of them collide / meet ???
• … how do we khow both particles are of the same
direction at time t ???
•The distance travelled in the nth second.

## •The range of time when the particle moves with negative

displacement
•Speed which is increasing

•Negative velocity

•Deceleration / retardation
Linear Programming
To answer this question, CANDIDATES must be able to
.....
 form inequalities from given mathematical
information
 draw the related straight lines using
suitable scales on both axes
recognise and shade the region representing
the inequalities

##  solve maximising or minimising problems

from the objective function (minimum cost,
maximum profit ....)
Linear Programming
Maklumat Ketaksamaan
1. x is at least 10 x ≥ 10
2. x is not more than 80 x ≤ 80
3. x is not more than y x ≤ y
4. The value of y is at least twice the value of x y ≥ 2x
5. The maximum value of x is 100 x ≤ 100
6. The minimum value of y is 35 y ≥ 35
7. The maximum value of x+ 2y is 60 x + 2y ≤ 60
8. The minimum value of 3x – 2y is 18 3x - 2y ≥ 18
9. The sum of x and y is not less than 50 x + y ≥ 50
10. The sum of x and y must exceed 40 x + y > 40
11. x must exceed y by at least 10 x ≥ y + 10
12. The ratio of the quantity of Q (y) to the quantity of P (x) y ≤ 2x
should not exceed 2 : 1
13. The number of units of model B (y) exceeds twice the y - 2x >10
number of units of model A (x) by 10 or more.
Good Luck !

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