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Mathematic
s
How to Solve
a Problem

•Which Topic / •Carry out the •Is the answer

•Subtopic ? •Choose suitable calculations reasonable?
•What info has been strategy •Graph sketching
given? •Choose the correct •Any other
•What is to be formula •Creating tables ... methods ??
found?
PAPER 1 FORMAT

 Objective Test : •Short Questions

 No. of Questions : •25 questions

 Total Marks : •80

 Duration : •2 hours

 Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,

Mathematical
Tables, Geometrical sets.
PAPER 2 FORMAT
•Subjective Questions

No. of Questions : A (6), B (4/5), C (2/4)

Total Marks : 100

Duration : 2 hours 30 minutes

L.O.D : L (6) , M(4-5), H(4-5)

Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,
• Mathematical Tables,
• Geometrical sets.
Key towards achieving 1A …

+(Gunakannya dengan betul !!!)

•Final answer must be in the simplest form

• (or follow the instruction given in the question)

  3.142
Kunci Mencapai kecemerlangan
•Proper / Correct ways of writing mathematical
notations

•Paper 2 :

• Sec. A: 8 - 10 minutes for each question

• Sec. B: 15 minutes for each question
• Sec. C: 15 minutes for each question
Common Mistakes…
1. The Quadratic equation 3x2 - 4x = 0

• y = 3x2 + 4x
y = 6x + 4

4. sin x = 300 , x = 300 , 1500

5.
Kesilapan Biasa Calon …
• f ' (x) wrongly interpreted as f – 1(x)
and / or conversely

• x2= 4 x = 2

• x2> 4 x > ±2

Common errors…

PA : PB = 2 : 3
then 2PA = 3 PB
Actually, …

PA : PB = 2 : 3

3 PA = 2 PB
More mistakes ……

32 PA2 = 22 PB2

9 PA2 = 4 PB2
Common mistakes …
logax + loga y = 0,
then xy = 0

It should be… xy = a0= 1

Common mistakes …

loga(x – 3) = loga x – loga 3

2x x 2y = 1 2x x 2y = 20
x + y = 1 2 x + y = 20

x + y = 0
Common mistakes …
logax + loga y = 0,
then loga xy = 0

So, xy = 0

It should be… xy = a0= 1

Common mistakes …

sin (x + 0
30 ) = ½,
then sin x + sin 300= ½
…………………gone !

Do NOT use
Sin(A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A
sin B !
Correct way… …

sin (x + 300) = ½ ,
then x +300= 300 , 1500

So, x = 00 , 1200
?
If 00 is an answer, then 3600 is also an
sin (x + 300) = ½ ,
then x +300= 300 , 1500 , 3900

So, x = 00 , 1200 , 3600

Relationship between Functions and Quadratic
Functions
Domain Codomain
y
X Y
f(x) = x
2

1 1

1 2 4

x
Image
O 1 2
Objec
t
(1, 1) , (2, 4). …. form ordered pairs and can be
plotted to obtain a curve.
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 1
P = { 1, 2, 3}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

• The relationship between P and Q is defined by the set

of ordered pairs { (1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8)}.
• State
• the image of 1,
• The object of 2. [2 marks]

(a) 2, 4 1
(a) 1 1
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 2

(a) or 0.4 2
B1: or g(x) = 3

 25x2 + 2 2
B1: (5x+1)2 – 2(5x+1) + 3
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 3 (SPM 2005,Q5)
Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1- x)(x+2).
Write your answer correct to four significant figures.
(3 marks)

2.591, - 0.2573 (both + 4 s.f.) 3

B2:

B1: 3x2– 7x – 2 = 0
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 4
The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has
two distinct roots. Find the range of values of p.
(3 marks)

p < -3, p > 5 (kedua-duanya) 3

B2: (p + 3) (p – 5) > 0

B1: (1 – p)2– 4(1)(4) > 0

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 5

Given that log 2T - log4 V = 3, express T in terms

of V. (4 marks)
T= 8V½ 4
B1

B2
B3
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 6

Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 7x (4 marks)

x = 1.677 4
(2x – 1) log 4 = x log 7 B1
2xlog 4 – log 4 = x log 7
2xlog 4 – x log 7 = log 4 B2
x(2 log 4 – log 7 ) = log 4

B3
SPM 2007 (???)
Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 8x (3 marks)

22(2x – 1) = 23x
2(2x – 1) = 3x

4x – 1 = 3x
x = 1
4x – 2 = 3x
No !!!
x = 2
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 7
The first three terms of an A.P.are k-3, k+3, 2k+2.
Find (a) the value of k,
(b) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression.

(3 marks)
(a) 7 2

(k + 3) – (k – 3) = (2k + 2) – (k + 3) B1
6 = k–1

(b) 252 1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 1
Solve the simultaneous equation 4x + y = - 8
and x2+ x – y = 2 (5 marks)

Make x or y the subject P1

Eliminating x or y
K1

Solving the quadratic equation : K1

x = -2, -3 or y = 0 , 4 N1

y = 0 , 4 or x = -2, -3 N1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2

The function f(x) = x2 - 4kx + 5k2 + 1has a minimum

value of r2 + 2k , with r and k as constants.

r=k–1 (4 marks)

• Hence, or otherwise, find the value of k and the

value of r if the graph of the function is symmetrical
about the line x = r2 -1. (4 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2 ***
2(a) Writing f(x) in the form (x – p)2 + q
(x – 2k)2 – 4k2 + 5k2 + 1
K1

Equating q ( q* = r2 + 2k) K1
(k – 1)2 = r2 N1
r= k–1 N1
(b) Equating (his) - (x – p) = 0 K1
Eliminating r or k by
K1 any valid method

k=0,4 N1
r = -1, 3 N1
F4

1. Functions

Given itself.
f (x) = x
x2 - 2 = x
x 2– x – 2 = 0
(x+1)(x-2) = 0
x = -1 , x = 2

2. f:x x - 3 , g:x 3x , find gf(1).

Given
f(x) = x – 3, g(x) = 3x
gf (1) = g [ f(1) ]
= g [-2]
= -6
T4
F4BAB 1

4. Given f (x) = 3 – 2x, find f -1.

Method 1 Method 2

Let f (x) = y
Let f -1(x) =y
Then 3 – 2x = y
Then x = f (y)
3 – y = 2x

x = 3 – 2y
T4
F4BAB 1

11

Method 1 (Find f-1 )

Method 2 ( No need f-1 )
Let f -1(x) = y
Then x = f(y) Let f -1(a) = 11
x=
Then a = f (11)
y=
= 8

f-1(a) = = 11

a= 8
T4
F4BAB 1

Functions : Given composite function and one function,

find the other function.

f(x) =2 - x , gf(x) = 2x-2

Let f(x) = u
Then u = 2 – x or x=2-u
g(u) = 2(2-u) – 2
= 2-2u
g(x) = 2-2x
fg(x) = f(2-2x)
= 2 - (2-2x)
= 2x
T4
F4BAB 1

7. Skecth the graph of y = |3-2x|+1 for domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 4

and state the corresponding range.

Tips : Sketch y = |3-2x| first !!!

y
6

3
Range : 1≤ y ≤ 6
2

x
0 4
F4

SPM 2004, K1, Q4
Form the quadratic equation which
has the roots – 3 and ½ .

x = – 3 , x = ½

(x+3) (2x – 1) = 0

2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0
F4

ax2 + bx + c = 0

x2 – ( S.O.R) x + (P.O.R.) = 0

S.O.R P.O.R. =
=
F4

The quadratic ax2 + bx + c= 0 has

equation
1. Two distinct roots if b2 - >0
4ac

4ac

3. No real roots if b2 - <0

4ac
**The straight line y = mx -1 is a tangent to the curve

F4

SPM 2004, K1, S5

Find the range of values of x for which

x(x – 4) ≤ 12

x (x – 4) ≤ 12
x2 – 4x – 12 ≤ 0
(x + 2)(x – 6) ≤ 0

x
-2 6

–2≤ x ≤ 6
F4
Back to
Solve BASIC

x 2 > 4 x> ±2
x2 – 4 > 0 ???
(x + 2)(x – 2) > 0 R.H.S

must be O !
–2 2

x < -2 or x > 2
F4

4. Simultaneous Equations

x + y =1
x2 + 3y2 = 7
Factorisation

• Solve the simultaneous equations, give your answer

correct to three decimal places.
x +y=1
x2 +3y2 = 8

*** P = Q = R
F4
5. INDICES
Back to basic… …
Solve ..

32(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x) = 1
2x – 2 – 3x = 1
– x = 3
x= –3 Betul
ke ???
F4
5. INDICES

Solve

3 2(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x)
= 1
32x – 2 +(– 3x) = 30
–x–2 =0
x = –2
F4
5. INDICES
Solve

or… 9x-1 = 27x

3 2(x – 1) = 3 3x

32x – 2 = 33x
2x – 2 = 3x
x = –2
F4
5. INDICES
Solve
2x + 3 = 2x+2
Can U take
2x + 3 = 2x . 22
logon both
2x + 3 = 4 (2x ) sides ???
3 = 3(2x ) WHY?
1 = (2x ) In the form

x = 0 u + 3 = 4u
F4
5. INDICES
Solve the equation ,
give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
[ 4 marks]

9 (3x) = 32 + (3x)
8 (3x) = 32
3x = 4

x = 1.26
(Mid-Yr
F4
5. INDICES
Solve
a mbm = (ab)m
22x . 5x = 0.05

4x . 5x =
You can
also take
20x = log on both
sides.
x = –1
F4 5. INDICES &
LOGARITHMS
(Mid-Yr 07)
Solve the equation
[4
marks]

x–2 = 4 (4 – x)
x = 3.6
F4 5. INDICES &
LOGARITHMS
Back to basic… …
Solve the the equation
log3(x – 4) + log3 (x + 4) = 2

log3(x-4)(x+4) = 2
x2 – 16 = 9
x = 5
F4

Solve the equation

log34x – log3(2x – 1) = 1

4x = 3(2x – 1)

= 6x – 3

2x = 3

x =
F4

Given that log3 p = m and log4p = n. Find

logp36 in terms of m and n.

logp 36 = logp 9 + logp K1

4 = 2log p 3 + logp 4 K1

K1

N1
logaa 1
=
Coordinate Geometry

Some extra vitamins 4u …

Coordinate Geometry
 Distance between two points
 Division of line segments : midpoints
+ the ratio theorem
 Areas of polygons
 Equation of straight lines
 Parallel and perpendicular lines
 Loci (involving distance between two
points)
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

Solutions to this

question by scale
drawing will not be
accepted.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

(starting from SPM 2004).

You SHOULD make full use
of the given diagram while
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

Sketch a simple diagram

required formula
correctly.
6. Coordinate Geometry
6.2.2 Division of a Line Segment
Q divides the line segment PR in the ratio PQ : QR = m : n

R(x2, y2)
n

m n ●
P(x1, y1) m Q(x, y)
Q(x, y) R(x2, y2)

P(x1, y1)

Q(x, y) =
6. Coordinate Geometry (Ratio Theorem)

The point P divides the line segment joining the point M(3,7) and
N(6,2) in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the coordinates of point P.

1 N(6, 2)

P(x, y) P(x, y) =
2

M(3, 7)
=

=
P(x, y) =
6. Coordinate Geometry

Perpendicular lines :
R

m1.m2 = –1 P

Q
S
6. Coordinate Geometry
(SPM 2006, P1, Q12)
Diagram 5 shows the straight line AB which is perpendicular to the straight
line CB at the point B.
The equation of CBis y = 2x – 1 .
Find the coordinates of B. [3 marks]

y mCB= 2

y = 2x – 1 mAB = – ½
A(0, 4)

Equation of AB is y= –½x+4
●B Diagram 5
At B, 2x – 1 = – ½ x + 4

O x x = 2, y = 3
●C So, Bis the point (2, 3).
6. Coordinate Geometry
Given points P(8,0) and Q(0,-6). Find the equation of
the perpendicular bisector of PQ.
y
mPQ=

mAB= K1
O P x
Midpoint of PQ (4, -3)
= Q
K1
The equation 4x + 3y -7 =
: or 0 N1
6 Coordinate Geometry

TASK: To find the equation of the locus of the moving

point P such that its distances from the points A and B
are in the ratio m : n

(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the

distance formula correctly)
6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distances from the points A(-2,3) and B(4, 8) are in the ratio 1 : 2.
(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the distance formula
correctly)

Let P = (x, y)
B(4, 8)

A(-2, 3) 2

1

P(x, y)

3x2 + 3y2 + 24x – 8y– 28 = 0

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distance from the point A(-2,3)is always 5 units. (≈ SPM 2005)

A(-2,3)
Let P = (x, y) A(-2, 3)

5

P(x, y)

is the equation of locus of P.

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of point Pwhich moves such that
it is always equidistant from points A(-2, 3) and B(4, 9).

Constraint / Condition : B(4, 9)

PA = PB
A(-2, 3)
PA2 = PB2 ●
(x+2)2 + (y – 3)2 = (x – 4)2 + (y – 9)2 ● P(x, y)

locus of P.

Note : This locus is actually the perpendicular bisector of AB

Solutions to this question by scale drawing will not be accepted.
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9)
Diagram 3 shows the triangle AOB where Ois the origin.
Point C lies on the straight line AB.
A(-3, 4) y

Diagram 3
C

x
O

B(6, -2)

(a) Calculate the area, in units2, of triangle AOB. [2 marks]

(b) Given that AC : CB = 3 : 2, find the coordinates of C. [2 marks]
• A point P moves such that its distance from point A is always twice its
distance from point B.
(i) Find the equation of locus of P,
(ii) Hence, determine whether or not this locus intercepts the y-axis.
[6 marks]
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9): ANSWERS
A(-3, 4) y

3
Diagram 3
C
● 2
x
O
9(a) K1 ●
B(6, -2)
N1 Use formula
= 9
To find area

9(b)
K1
Use formula correctly

N1
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9): ANSWERS

A(-3, 4) y
● 2
● P(x, y)
9(c) (i) C
● 1
O x
AP = ●
B(6, -2)
K1
Use distance
formula
AP = 2PB
K1
AP2 = 4 PB2
Use AP = 2PB
(x+3)2 + (y – 4 )2 = 4 [(x – 6)2+ (y + 2)2

x2 + y2– 18x + 8y + 45 = 0 N1

(SPM 2006, P2, Q9): ANSWERS

Use b2 – 4ac = 0
or AOM

√ (his locus

& b2 – 4ac)
F4

6. Coordinate Geometry : the equation of locus

Given that A(-1,-2) and B(2,1) are fixed points . Point P movessuch
that the ratio of AP to PB is 1 : 2. Find the equation of locus for P.

2AP = PB

K1

3x2 + 3y2 + 12x + 18y + 15 = N1

0
x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 5 =
0
F4

Statistics
From a given set of data,
Marks f (e.g. The frequency distribution
of marks of a group of students)
6-10 12
11-15 20 Students should be able to find ….
16-20 27 • the mean, mode & median
21-25 16 • Q1, Q3 and IQR
• the variance & S.Deviations
26-30 13
•Construct a CFT and draw an ogive
31-35 10 •Use the ogive to solve related
problems
36-40 2
Total 100
F5
To estimate median from Graph For Question 6(b)

Histogram
Number of people

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
33.5

0.5 20.5 40.5 60.5 80.5 100.5 Age

Modal age = 33.5
F4 CHAPTER 8

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

 S = rθ (θ must be in
θ
 A = ½ r2 θ

Always refer to diagram when answering this question.

F4

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

Diagram shows a sector of a circle A

OABC with centre O and radius 4
B 0.8c O
cm.Given that AOC = 0.8 radians,
find the area of the shaded region.
C

K1
Area of sector = ½ x 42 x 0.8
OABC = 6.4 cm 2
K1
Area of triangle = ½ x 42 x sin 0.8
OAC In radians !!!!
= 5.7388 cm2
K1
Area of shaded = 6.4 –
region 5.7388 N1

= 0.6612 cm2
F4

DIFFERENTIATION :

F4

Given that f(x) = x3 + x2 – 4x +

5, find the value of f ” (1)

f’ (x) = 3x2 + 2x –

f” (x) = 6x +
2

f” (1) = 8
F4

” (1) .

Ya
ke ??
F4- 9

” (-1) .

g’ (x) = 10x (x2 +

1)4
g’’ (x) = 10x . 4(x2 + 1) 3.2x +(x2+1)4.
10
g’’ (-1) = 10(-1) . 4[(-1)2 + 1] 3
+[(-1)2+1)4. 10

F4

Given that y = 2x3 – x2 + 4, find the value of at

the point (2, 16). Hence, find the small
increment in xwhich causes y to increase from 16
to 16.05.

= 6x2 – 2x

= 20 , x= K1
2

K1

N1
F5

Progressions : A.P &

G.P
A.P. : a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d ,…
…..
Most important is “d”

G.P. : a, ar, ar2, ar3,……..

Most important is “ r
” !!
F5

Progressions : G.P - Recurring Decimals

SPM 2004, P1, Q12
Express the recurring decimal
0.969696 … as a fraction in the
simplest form.

x = 0. 96 96 96 … (1)
100x = 96. 96 96 ….. (2)
(2) – (1) 99x = 96
x= =
F5 Back to basic… …

Progressions
Given that Sn = 5n – n2 , find the sum from
the 5th to the 10th terms of the progression.

S10 – S5 = ……. ???
S10 – S4
Ans :-
54
F5

Linear Law

1-2

4. Line of best fit 1

5. Use of Y-intercept to determine
X value of constant
2-4
6. Use of gradient to determine
another constant
F5

Linear Law
Bear in mind that …......

1. Scale must be uniform

Y 2. Scale of both axes may defer :
FOLLOW given instructions !

3. Horizontal axis should start from

0 !
4. Plot ……… against ……….
X

Axis
Linear law
F5
Y
4.5
x

3.5

x
3.0

x
2.5

2.5 x

1.5
x

1.0
x

0.5

Read this value !!!!!

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x
F5

INTEGRATION

=
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2003, P2, Q3(a) 3 marks
Given that = 2x + 2 and y= 6 when x= – 1, find
y in terms of x.

Answer: = 2x + 2

y =

= x2+ 2x + c

x = -1, y = 6: 6 = 1 +2 + c
c = 3

Hence y = x2 + 2x + 3
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2004, K2, S3(a) 3 marks
The gradient function of a curve which passes through
A(1, -12) is 3x2 – 6. Find the equation of the curve.

Answer: = 3x2 – 6

= x3– 6x + c Function
x = 1, y = – 12 : – 12 = 1 – 6 + c
c = –7
Hence y = x3 – 6 x – 7
F5

Vectors : Unit Vectors

Given that OA = 2i + j and OB = 6i + 4j, find
B the unit vectorin the direction of AB

AB = OB - OA
= ( 6i + 4j ) – ( 2i + j )
A = 4i + 3j K1

l AB l =

= 5

Unit vector in the direction of AB = K1 N1

F5

Parallel vectors
Given that a and bare parallel vectors, with
a = (m-4)i +2 j and b= -2i + mj. Find the the value of
m.

a=kb

a= b
(m-4) i + 2 j = k (-2i + mj) K1

m- 4 = -2k 1

mk = 2 2 K1

m=2 N1
F5
5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

tan2 x – sin2 x = sin 2x K1

K1

N1
F5
5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Solve the equation 2 cos 2x + 3 sin x - 2

=0
2( 1 - 2sin2 x) + 3 sin x - 2 = 0 K1

-4 sin2 x + 3 sin x = 0

sin x( -4 sin x + 3 ) = 0 K1

sin x= 0 sin x =
,

F5

1. Sketch given graph : (4 marks)

(2003) y = 2 cos x,

(2004) y = cos 2x for

(2005) y = cos 2x ,
(2006) y = – 2 cos x ,
F5 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

Find the number of four digit numbers

exceeding 3000 which can be formed from
the numbers 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 if each number is
allowed to be used once only.

No. of ways = 4. 4. 3.
2 = 96

3, 6, 8,
9
F5

Find the number of ways the word BESTARIcan

be arranged so that the vowels and consonants
alternate with each other
[ 3 marks ]

Vowels : E, A, I
Consonants : B, S, T, R
Arrangements : C V C V C V C

No. of ways = 4! 3 !
= 144
F5
Two unbiased dice are tossed.
Find the probability that the sum of the
two numbers obtained is more than 4.
Dice B, y
n(S) = 6 x 6 = 36
6 X X X X X X Constraint : x + y > 4
5 X X X X X X
Draw the line x + y = 4
4 X X X X X X

3 X X X X X X We need : x + y > 4
2 X X X X X X P( x + y > 4) = 1 –
1 X X X X X X

Dice A, x =
1 2 3 4 5 6
F5

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

The Binomial Distribution

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, …..n p+q=1

n = Total number of trials

r = No. of ‘successes’
p = Probability of ‘success’
q = probability of ‘failure’ Mean = np

Variance = npq
F5

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

The NORMAL Distribution

Candidates must be able to … f(z)

Z =
z
00 0.5

(probabilities)
T5

f(z) f(z) f(z)

= 1 – –

z z z
-1.5 0 1 0 1 0 1.5
F4

Index Numbers

Index Number =

Composite Index =

Problems of index numbers involving
two or more basic years.
Solution of Triangles
The Sine Rule

The Cosine Rule

Area of Triangles

Problems in 3-Dimensions.

Ambiguity cases (More than ONE

Motion in a Straight Line

•Initial displacement, velocity, acceleration...

•Particle returns to starting point O...

•Particle moves with constant velocity...

Motion in a Straight Line

Question involving motion of TWO particles.
• ... When both of them collide / meet ???
• … how do we khow both particles are of the same
direction at time t ???
•The distance travelled in the nth second.

•The range of time when the particle moves with negative

displacement
•Speed which is increasing

•Negative velocity

•Deceleration / retardation
Linear Programming
To answer this question, CANDIDATES must be able to
.....
 form inequalities from given mathematical
information
 draw the related straight lines using
suitable scales on both axes
recognise and shade the region representing
the inequalities

 solve maximising or minimising problems

from the objective function (minimum cost,
maximum profit ....)
Linear Programming
Maklumat Ketaksamaan
1. x is at least 10 x ≥ 10
2. x is not more than 80 x ≤ 80
3. x is not more than y x ≤ y
4. The value of y is at least twice the value of x y ≥ 2x
5. The maximum value of x is 100 x ≤ 100
6. The minimum value of y is 35 y ≥ 35
7. The maximum value of x+ 2y is 60 x + 2y ≤ 60
8. The minimum value of 3x – 2y is 18 3x - 2y ≥ 18
9. The sum of x and y is not less than 50 x + y ≥ 50
10. The sum of x and y must exceed 40 x + y > 40
11. x must exceed y by at least 10 x ≥ y + 10
12. The ratio of the quantity of Q (y) to the quantity of P (x) y ≤ 2x
should not exceed 2 : 1
13. The number of units of model B (y) exceeds twice the y - 2x >10
number of units of model A (x) by 10 or more.
Good Luck !

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