Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.

net

Grid
4 Segments of a Power System Load

Distribution Network (Sma!! Distributed Power"

Transmission Network ( u!k Power"

Generating Station
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Grid
Grid Substation Grid Substation Grid Substation Grid Substation Grid Sub station

ittle complex is:

Nuc!ear Station T$erma! Station #yde! Station Distribution Substation Diese! Generating Station

Distribution Substation

Grid Substation

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

%ngredients of a ty&ica! Grid

So a grid network consists of 4 segments:

'" Generation (" Transmission )" Distribution 4" Load

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

*a+or Generation Sources


T$erma! Power P!ant Nuc!ear Power P!ant #yde! Power P!ant Gas , Diese! Power P!ant

ase Load Generating Stations

Peak Load Generating Stations

iomass Power P!ant

-ind Power P!ant

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Transmission Network
/arious /o!tage Le0e!s in Transmission

112/ 3 Typically )4 * ''4 2/ 3 Typically 14516 * ')( 2/ 3 Typically 74584 * ((4 2/ 3 Typically '845((4 * 444 2/ 3 Typically 4645644 * 716 2/ 3 Typically '(445'644 *Grid Station . Transmission Lines
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Grid Studies

Distribution Network
/arious /o!tage Le0e!s in Distribution

))2/ 3 Typically '4 * '' 2/ 3 Typically 456 * 4.4 2/ 3 Typically 4.154.76 *-

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Grid Studies

Different ty&es of Loads


:esisti0e Load

) Load 9om&onents <:=> <L= . <9=


%nducti0e Load

9a&aciti0e Load Pum& Sets <?&&osite=

Transformers

;!ectric *otor
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Grid Studies
Grid System as See5Saw

Generation

Load and Transmission Loss

a!ance b,w Generation and Load 9onsum&tion in Power System

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

About Substation.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

SLD of a substation

Line ay

us ar System

Power Trafo. AuBi!!ary Trafo. ays

Transformer ay @eeder ays

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Line ay

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Transformer ay

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

@eeder ays

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

AuBi!!ary Transformer ay

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Different Line ay Sc$emes


1)Radial Connected Substation with Single Line Bay. (fig.1) 2)Radial Connected Substation with Double Line Bays (fig.2) )L!L" Connected Substation with Single Line Bay (fig. ) #)L!L" Connected Substation with Double Line Bays. (fig.#)
%ncoming Line AD %ncoming Line ADS

Substation CS

(fig.1
%ncoming Line ADS

Substation CS

(fig.!
%ncoming Line ADS

Substation CS

(fig."

Substation

CS

(fig.4
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Diffe$ent B%S BAR sche&es..

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Sing!e us ar Arrangement. T#is arrangement consists of a single $%s $ar to w#ic# &ario%s feeders are connected. 'n case of a fa%lt or maintenance of $%s $ar( total s#%t down occ%rs and #ence pro&ides least flexi)ilit*.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

S%NGL;

CS SDST;*
T,@5' T,@5(

*A%N CS A:

AD'

AD(

AD)

AD4

AD6

@;;D;:'

@;;D;:(
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

S%NGL; CS SDST;* -%T# S;9T%?NAL%S%NG %S?LAT?:

T,@5'

T,@5(

*A%N CS A:

AD'

AD(

AD)

AD4

@;;D;:'

@;;D;:(
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

Doub!e us ar Arrangement.

T#is arrangement pro&ides additional flexi)ilit*( contin%it* of +ower S%ppl*( permits periodic maintenance wit#o%t total s#%t down as t#ere is red%ndant $%s $ar and ,irc%it $reaker ($%s ,o%pler .

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

D?C L; CS SDST;*
T,@5' T,@5(

CS5'
CS 9?CPL;:

CS5(

AD'

AD(

AD)

AD4

AD6

$-. /

AD7

@;;D;:5'

@;;D;:5(
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

D?C L; *A%N CS . 9

DPASS %S? SDST;*


T,@5' T,@5(

AD'

AD(

AD4 CS 9?CPL;:

AD1

AD7

CS5'

CS5(

AD)

AD6

@;;D;:'

@;;D;:(

@?: AND 9 P:? L;* ?: @?: P:;/;NT%/; *A%NTAN;N9;> SC9# @;;D;: 9AN ; S#%@T;D T? AN?T#;: CS AND T#; DPASS %S?LAT?: %S 9L?S;D> T#;N P:?T;9T%?N %S T:ANS@;::;D T? CS 9?CPL;: AND T#; @ACLTD 9 9AN ; %S?LAT;D.

@;;D;:)

@;;D;:4

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

D?C L; *A%N CS . T:ANS@;: CS SDST;*


T,@5' T,@5(

CS5'
CS 9?CPL;:

AD) AD' AD(

AD4

AD6

T:ANS@;: CS 9?CPL;: AD1

CS5(

T:ANS@;: CS

AD7

AD8

@;;D;:'

@;;D;:(

@;;D;:)

@;;D;:4

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

?ne and a #a!f reaker Arrangement

T#is arrangement pro&ides t#ree circ%it )reakers for e&er* two circ%its. 't gi&es #ig# sec%rit* against loss of s%ppl* )%t #ig#er cost is in&ol&ed. 0ence t#is is pro&ided for important 41123 S%) Stations. 't ma* )e config%red in 4'5 or 465 s#apes
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

%59?N@%GCA:AT%?N
CS5( CS5'

@;;D;: '

@;;D;: (

AD)

AD(

AD'

@;;D;: )
AD1 AD6 AD4

@;;D;: 4

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

D59?N@%GCA:AT%?N
@;;D;:'
AD(

@;;D;:(

@;;D;:6
AD8

@;;D;:1

@;;D;:E
AD'4

@;;D;:'4

AD')

AD'

AD7

D%A'

D%A)

D%A6

CS5'

CS5(
AD'4 AD'( AD'1 AD4

AD'6

AD)

ADE

D%A(

D%A4

D%A1

AD6

AD''

AD'7

@;;D;:)

@;;D;:4

@;;D;:7

@;;D;:8

@;;D;:''

@;;D;:'(

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

AD'8

AD1

Substation

'ain ()ui*&ent

(nginee$ed !te&

Au+ilia$y ()ui*&ents

Au+ilia$y Syste&s

St$uctu$e (a$thing

Ci,il

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

7aintenance tips 8 ,#ecks incase of tripping

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ D%@@;:;NT%AL :;LAD (87" 9ail%re of Lig#tening -rrestors pro&ided to Transformer. 9ail%re of 03:L3 ,Ts of Transformer. ;ntr* of <eptiles in Switc#gear and ,T 7ars#alling $ox. =pening of >- ,ore ,T secondar* wiring. 7alf%nctioning of <ela*. 9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F +#ase on w#ic# <ela* operated. 'nspection of 03:L3 ,Ts and L-s4. ;ntr* of <eptiles. 'nspection of ,T secondar* connections in ,T 7$ and ,ontrol and <ela* +anel. A9T%?N T? ; TA2;N D STAT%?N STA@@F 'n case L-s4 #a&e failed( same needs to )e replaced. <eplace L-s4 if ' < &al%e is )elow ?11 7ega o#ms. 'n ot#er cases immediatel* inform S%)station 'n@c#arge.
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ :;ST:%9T;D ;A:T# @ACLT :;LAD (%NSTANTAN;?CS ;A:T# @ACLT :;LAD" (14:" 9ail%re of Ae%tral ,T or A,T de&eloping ratio error. Loose connection of clamps. Transformer Binding fa%lt* (<emote case . 7alf%nctioning of <ela*. <ela* 9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F

'nspect Ae%tral ,T. 'nspect L.-. A9T%?N T? ; TA2;N D STAT%?N STA@@F <eplace failed ,a)le +ot#ead : failed L.-. <eplace L-s4 if ' < &al%e is )elow ?11 7ega o#ms. 'n ot#er cases immediatel* inform S%)station 'n@c#arge
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ T:ANS@?:*;: C9#?LTG :;LADF -ir trapped in <ela* d%ring co%rse of filtering or acc%m%lation of gas d%e to internal fa%lt in Binding. ;ntr* of moist%re in Transformer 7ars#alling $ox d%e to rains (;xternal factor . ;ntr* of rain water in $%c#oltC Terminal d%e to improper glanding of control ca)le. 9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F <elease gas collected in $%c#oltC <ela* and c#eck w#et#er it is air or gas )* odo%r. 'f no gas or air is trapped in t#e $%c#oltC <ela*( c#eck for s#orting of contacts in 7ars#aling $ox )* meas%ring &oltage across contacts( if no &oltage appears across t#e contact t#en it is a s#orting d%e to rain water entr*. ($ad &ermin proofing or improper closer of door +ro&ide proper glands at ca)le entr* or %se monoplast compo%nd or 7@seal. (stopgap meas%re A9T%?N T? ; TA2;N D STAT%?N STA@@F 'f p%ngent smell of gas is fo%nd to #a&e acc%m%lated in t#e $%c#oltC rela*( 6o not c#arge t#e Transformer( inform S%)station 'n@c#arge
www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ P:;SSC:; :;L%;@ /AL/; (P:/"F 'nternal #ea&* fa%lt in Transformer ca%sing t%r)%lence( w#erein t#e indicator flap #as operated wit# or wit#o%t splas#ing of oil. +<3 operated wit#o%t operation of flap. 9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F ,#eck t#e mars#aling )ox for an* water entr* or ca)le ins%lation p%nct%re ,#eck t#e +<3 flap5s condition. A9T%?N T? ; TA2;N D STAT%?N STA@@F 'f flap #as operated wit# or wit#o%t splas#ing of oil( report to s%)station in@c#arge. 'f +<3 operates wit#o%t operation of flap( c#eck for contin%it* of trip contacts %sing m%lti@ meter and report to S%)station 'n@c#arge.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ *AGN;T%9 ?%L GCAG; (*?G" ALA:*F Low oil le&el in Transformer conser&ator. 7=G defecti&e. 9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F

,#eck oil le&el )* opening cap n%t on conser&ator top %sing a dip stick. ,#eck for leakages in Transformer. A9T%?N T? ; TA2;N D STAT%?N STA@@F Top of oil in conser&ator at t#e !D degree marking. +l%g leakages a&ailing assistance of S%)station 'n@c#arge.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ ?%L SC:G; :;LAD (?S:"F Low oil le&el in 6i&erter Switc# c#am)er or low oil le&el in conser&ator connected to 6i&erter ,irc%it. T%r)%lence in 6i&erter Switc# d%e to improper contact or fail%re of )ridge resistance. 7alf%nctioning of <ela*. A9T%?N T? ; TA2;N D STAT%?N STA@@F 'nspect for acc%m%lation of gas in =S<. ,#eck contacts for s#orts. '9 G-S -,,E7EL-T'=A 'S =$S;<3;6 =< '9 T0; =S< 6=;S A=T <;S;T( 'A9=<7 S%)station 'n@c#arge.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N P?-;: T:ANS@?:*;: P:?T;9T%/; :;LADSF


9ACS;S @?: ?P;:AT%?N ?@ ?%L T;*P;:ATC:; ALA:* , T:%P AND -%ND%NG T;*P;:ATC:; ALA:* , T:%PF =&erloading of Transformer. <adiator &al&es not opened properl*. ,ooling fans : p%mps not f%nctioning. <e&ersal of direction of operation of p%mps : fans. 9ail%re of 7erc%r* contacts in =T' : BT'. 9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F ,#eck oil and Binding temperat%re on 'nstr%ment 6iar*. ,#eck radiator &al&e position on t#e top and )ottom of radiators. ,#eck -, s%ppl* control circ%it of fan : p%mp control. ,#eck direction of operation )ot# fan and p%mp. ,#eck for s#orting of contacts d%e to rain water entr*. '9 ,0;,2S 6= A=T <;3;-L -A. +<=$L;7 T0;A 'A9=<7 SE$ST-T'=A 'A,0-<G;.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N 9ircuit

reakersF

9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F ,#eck air and gas press%re #o%rl*. L%)ricate reF%ired parts reg%larl*. ,#eck ,ompressor working ('n pne%matic t*pe reg%larl*. <eplace oil in ,ompressor if contaminated. <elease air from recei&er dail* to disc#arge water. ,#eck condition of air filter in ,ompressor intake and replace if fo%nd clogged. ,#eck pad clamps reg%larl* for cracks and tig#tness d%ring o%tage period. 'n case of air and gas leakages inform S%)station 'nc#arge.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N L%G#T;N%NG A::;ST?:S F


9#;9#2S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STA@@

,lean Lig#tening -rrestor stacks. 6%ring periodical o%tages c#eck '< &al%es to gro%nd )* disconnecting L- from circ%it. <eplace L- if '< &al%e is )elow ?11 7ega =#m. ,#eck #ealt#iness indication meter of L-. (Green for #ealt#*. L-s to 11k3 $ank and feeders are m%st to a&oid flas#o&er of switc#gear eF%ipments.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net

9#;92S ?N %S?LAT?:SF

9#;92S T? ; 9?NDC9T;D D STAT%?N STA@@F ,#eck linkages for sim%ltaneo%s operation( operating mec#anism( stopper )olts( etc. ,#eck eart# switc# copper flexi)le. ,#eck eart# connections of eart# )lade. ,lean ins%lators and c#eck for cracks. ,lean main contacts( eart# )lade and spring assem)l*. -ppl* +etrole%m Gell* to contacts and l%)ricate mo&ing parts and )earing. ,#eck and tig#ten H%mps and clamps.

www.enercon.de www.enerconindia.net