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Curriculum Development as Applied to Nursing Education and Practice

Presented by: Mr. Jhessie L. Abella, RN, RM, MAN

Thoughts For Reflection


o Can a school exist without a curriculum? o How does a strong belief or philosophy influence curriculum? o As educators, how important will a curriculum be to you? o What are the implications of an ever changing curriculum to teachers?

Definition of Curriculum
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Definition of Curriculum
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Definition of Curriculum
The UNICEF Curriculum Report Card defines curriculum thus: o Curriculum is what happens to students within the fluid context of schooling and for which schools can be held accountable (UNICEF 2000)

Definition of Curriculum
Curriculum, derived from a Latin word currere which means to run, over the time it has been translated to mean course of study (Wiles & Bondi, 1989). Ronald C. Doll (1996) defined curriculum as the "formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills and alter attitudes, appreciations and values under the auspices of that school. William E. Doll, Jr. (2002), described curriculum in relation to a shifting paradigm, moving from a formal definition to a focus on one's multiple interactions with others and one's surroundings.

Types of Curriculum Operating in School


1. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM proposed by scholars and professional organizations 2. WRITTEN CURRICULUM appears in school, district or country documents 3. TAUGHT CURRICULUM what teachers implement and deliver in the classrooms or schools. 4. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM resources, textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum 5. ASSESSED CURRICULUM tested and evaluated 6. LEARNED CURRICULUM What the students actually learn and what is measured. 7. HIDDEN CURRICULUM The unintended curriculum( ALLAN GLATTHORN, 2000)

Characteristics of a Good Curriculum


The curriculum is continuously evolving The curriculum is based on the needs of the people. The curriculum is democratically conceived. The curriculum is a result of a long-term effort The curriculum is a complex of details. The curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter. The curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the community. The curriculum has educational quality The curriculum has administrative flexibility.

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


I. Conservative View
I. II. Perennenialism Essentialism

II. Progressive View


I. II.
I. II.

Existentialism Experimentalism
Reconstructionism Critical Curriculum Theory

III. Radical View

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


I.

Conservative View
The basic premise underpinning the conservative vision is that there are certain enduring worthwhile truths that should be taught and learned. According to this view, the purpose of education is to transmit worthwhile bodies of information to generations of learners so that that which is worthwhile is conserve.
Education should concern itself with the cultivation of the intellect and not learner needs or interests (Tanner and Tanner, 1995). Furthermore, the two schools of thought agree that: social change should be slow there is need to conserve and therefore to oppose reform methodology should be teacher directed emphasis should be placed on ensuring content-centered curriculum (Hearne and Cowles, 2001:54)

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


Rooted in idealism and realism, essentialists contend that both body and mind are important in education and as such core kn owledge and skills are essential to a successful society, because those requisite abilities allow the individual to be an economically productive member of society (Gaudelli, 2002:198). human nature tends to be bad culture is outside the individual consciousness should be focused on the present and the future the centre of value is found in the body and to a lesser degree in the mind.

The purpose of education, from the essentialists perspective, is the preservation, through transmission to generations of learners, of that which is essential to learn. The goal of education is to instill in learners the academic and moral knowledge which should constitute those essential things that a mature adult needs to know in order to be a productive member of society (Hearne and Cowles, 2001:54).

For the essentialists, knowledge is not to be found only in the Great Books of the western world, but is likely to be found in a variety of places. For them, knowledge is what is real and reality exists outside the individual and is subject to observation.

From the essentialist perspective, the learner is seen as a passive recipient of information transmitted by disciplinary experts.

The teacher knows best.

For the essentialists, learning is no more than acquisition of knowledge and skills. According to this perspective this acquisition is best achieved through a teaching/learning process that places emphasis on lectures, drill, recitation and demonstration, provided and led by an expert in the discipline.

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


II. Progressive View
Progressivism is associated with the rise in dissatisfaction with traditional education practices which placed emphasis on content and totally disregarded the place of learners needs and interest in education.
Progressive education is a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century and has persisted in various forms to the present. The term "progressive" was engaged to distinguish this education from the traditional curriculum of the 19th century, which was rooted in classical preparation for the university and strongly differentiated by socioeconomic level. By contrast, progressive education finds its roots in present experience.

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


The basic premise on which experimentalism is based is that reality is external and observable. Truth is only that which can be verified through experimental testing. The underlying philosophy on which this ideology is based is pragmatism. Pragmatists, such as Pierce, Dewey and Whitehead are of the view that what is real and true, is what works. Knowledge therefore, is judged on the basis of its consequences. Broad presuppositions underpinning experimentalism include the following: the meaning and value of ideas is only found in practical results ideas must always be tested by experimentation change is the only constant in human existence the ability to adjust to and/or deal with change is fundamental to constructive and democratic living (Tanner and Tanner, 1995).

From the experimentalist perspective, the purpose of education is to help learners make connections between their life experiences and the world of schooling. The level of experience and the learners interest should therefore be the starting point in any educational event.

From the experimentalists perspective, life experience should form the basis of what is learned

The learner is viewed as a psychological and social being. The psychological and social aspects of the learner are organically intertwined

From the experimentalists perspective, the teacher, by virtue of his or her experience and wisdom, has a responsibility to assist the learner in properly responding to these experiences (Dewey, 1998:231).

Similar to all progressives, the experimentalists prefer learning by doing (experimentation) rather than passively listening to lectures.

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


III. Radical View
Education should do more than prepare learners for participatory democratic citizenship. Education should also prepare them for deliberative citizenship.

Reconstructionism
Reconstructionism is commonly seen as a branch of progressive education. It is discussed under the radical vision in this chapter, because of its conception of education as a vehicle for effecting fundamental social change, especially in the realm of socio political, economic and cultural organization. Central to reconstructionism is the conviction that societal change can be achieved through education (Kilgour, 1995).

Educational Philosophy and Curriculum


From the The social studies reconstructionists curriculum is perspective, the preferred over purpose of other disciplines, education is to such as natural reconstruct sciences. society through Any discipline, students however, is acquisition of relevant in so far problem-solving as it is used to skills applied to interrogate the real life (Stern societal issues and Riley, facing the 2002:114). learners and the society as a whole. From the reconstructionist perspective, teachers have to be courageous and bold in performing their roles in reconstructing. Tanner and Tanner describe an ideal learner within the social reconstructionist perspective as a rebel committed to and involved in constructive social redirection and renewal (1995:305). Social reconstructionist classrooms as conceived by Counts and other reconstructionist scholars of the time, would not have differed much from the essentialist classrooms.

FOUR STEPS TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can they be organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

Revived in the works of contemporary educational philosophers such as Henry Giroux, and spurred by the failure of early 20th century revolutionary education as advocated by Counts and his associates, interest in education as an instrument of social change has again begun to dominate educational and/or curriculum discourse. The point of departure for critical curriculum theorists is that schools (and by implication educationinsertion mine) contribute to cultural reproduction of class relations and economic order that allows very little social mobility (Slattery, 1995:193). all thought and power relations are inexorably linked these power relations form oppressive social arrangements facts and values are inseparable and are inscribed by ideology language is a key element in the formation of subjective identities, and thus critical literacythe ability to negotiate passages through social systems and structuresis more important than functional literacythe ability to decode and compute oppression is based in the reproduction of privileged knowledge codes and practices

The advocates of critical curriculum theory conceive the purpose of education as enabling students to become transformers of society

According to him a curriculum which acknowledges the social responsibilities of education must present situations where problems are relevant to the problems of living together, and where observations and information are calculated to develop social insight and interest.

In such classrooms The role of the Critical curriculum learner therefore is theorists believe that textbooks only serve as tools for constantly to it is the role and interpretation and question the world in responsibility of the analysis, rather than as which he/she lives teacher to authoritative with a view to help learners learn sources of information. transformative how to think, and Debates, questioning (often Socratic in action. provide them with nature), and the tools they need conversation in order to are the teaching transform the methodologies of society. choice.

Curriculum Approaches

Curriculum Approaches

Curriculum Approaches

Advantage and Disadvantage of the Curriculum Approaches

Advantage and Disadvantage of the Curriculum Approaches

An Overview of the Process of Curriculum Development

DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT


Curriculum development is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing and evaluating the learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interest of learners, and on the basis of the nature of the society or community.

DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT


It is a continuous process for the possibilities of improving the teaching-learning situation. Its goals is a positive change; process; transformation in the lives of the learners based on schools mission and goals. It should be produced in coordinated program of meaningful experiences for learners development (2009 Ed.) Curriculum development is a decision-making process that involves a variety of concerns (Bago).

Curriculum Development
Some curriculum experts like Tyler say that the steps are followed in a sequence or a straight line. This model that assumes that curriculum decision making follows a straight line is called linear model
1
Selection of Aims

Selection of Content & Learning Experiences Organization of Content & Learning Experiences Evaluation of Learning Outcomes

Curriculum Development
Other scholars argue that curriculum decision making is not a simple linear process that necessarily starts with aims. One of them is Wheeler (1978) who believes that curriculum decision making can start from any point and can come back to any of the points e.g. like a cycle
Evaluation Aims, Goals & Objectives

Organisation & Integration of Learning Experiences & Content

Selection of Learning Experiences

Selection of Content

Curriculum Development
Kerr (1968) also believes that curriculum process is a very complex set of activities and decisions and they interact a lot.
Objective

Changes made in content may necessitate changes in experiences, which may again bring about changes in evaluation etc.

Evaluation

Content

Learning Experience

Curriculum Terminology
A School of Nursing A Programme A Course A Subject or Discipline A Module Learning Opportunity

Thoughts for Reflection


Who should lead innovations in nursing education; the government; the nursing organization/s; or the school of nursing?

The National Process of Curriculum Development

The National Process of Curriculum Development

Technical Committee on Nursing Education

The Institutional Process of Curriculum Development


The institutional process is even more important. Even if a national curriculum is available, it has to be interpreted by nurse educators locally. The teaching/learning philosophy of the local institution, the characteristics of local students and many other factors make such local interpretation essential (Walker, 2003).

Steps in Curriculum Development


Step 1: Establish the context and foundations What are the expectations people or groups have of the programme and to what extent are these being met? What are the environmental influences on the program? Health system Educational system Professional system Societal system Which resources can the programme access? Teaching staff Teaching resources Prospective students Clinical facilities Step 2: Formulate the outcomes or objectives Step 3: Select a curriculum model and develop a macro-curriculum Step 4: Develop the micro-curriculum Step 5: Plan for the evaluation of implementation and outcomes

Developing a Macro Curriculum

Macro Curriculum
The macro-curriculum refers to the overall design or blueprint of the programme, and is done by a Curriculum Committee. In contrast, the micro curriculum refers to the course outlines and unit plans, which are usually developed by the individual teacher. The components of the macro-curriculum are:
Programme Outcomes The content guidelines and teaching approach Scheduling of teaching/learning over the programme period.

Types of Outcomes

Types of Outcomes

Criterion for Stating Outcomes as Competencies


The focus is on what the person can doon performance (Burke, 1995) The competencies are broad and occupationally based, not narrow and job based. Competence makes provision for change Competence should focus on output, not input (Burke, 1995). Competence is something that is inferred from performance, and not directly observed.

Selection and Organization of Content


Content refers to the facts, concepts, theories, principles, laws, skills and attitudes students have to learn, while learning experiences refer to the ways in which the student engages with the content. The selection of content and learning experiences cannot really be distinguished from the organization of the curriculum. If the content is chosen in terms of subjects, the organization will be in terms of subjects. If the content of a course is chosen based on a specific textbook, the organization of the course will probably be according to the chapters of the textbook.

Criteria for the Selection of Content


Validity and meaningfulness Relevance to the social context A balance between breadth and depth

Criteria for the Organization of Content


Principle of continuity Principle of order Principle of integration

The Structuring of the Clinical Learning Experience

Developing a Micro Curriculum


Wright (1994) pointed out that in each course there are three major influences on student development: the student, the course and the teacher. The course developers shape the course, and therefore their aims, their beliefs and their competence play a large part in the final outcome for the students and the teacher. The student, however, also plays a major role. Students enter a course with a particular conception of learning, variable levels of ability to cope with different learning tasks, and differing perceptions of their own abilities. The less prescriptive the course is in terms of content and structure, or the more options it gives students, the more students can shape the learning according to their own strengths and needs. The level of control the student is allowed depends on a number of factors, of which the course developers are the major one.

Course Development
Step 1: Block in the course Step 2: Formulate the course outcomes Step 3: Divide the course into logical units of about equal weight Step 4: Develop the units Step 5: Select appropriate student assignments Step 6: Select appropriate teaching/learning resources Step 7: Choose an appropriate textbook Step 8: Determine how students will demonstrate learning Step 9: Write the course guide to be given to students Step 10: Review Step 11: Organize the course resources

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