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COMMUNITY NUTRITION

Diah Krisnansari

Introduction
Community : masyarakat
Nutrition : ghidza , makanan WHO: Ilmu gizi : mempelajari proses pada organisme hidup untuk mengambil dan mengolah zat-zat padat dan cair dari makanan untuk memelihara kehidupan, pertumbuhan, berfungsinya organ tubuh dan menghasilkan energi

Overview
Nutrition professionals recognize that succesful delivery of food and nutrition services involves actively engaging people in their own community. The pool of nutrition profesionals delivering medical nutrition therapy and nutrition education in community-based or public health facilities continues to expand. The objectives of Healthy People 2010 offer a common framework of measurable public health outcome to assess the overall health of community

Community Assesment

Core Public Health

Policy Development

Public Health Assurance

Traditional Public Health

Nutrition Professionals

Primary Care

Promote Health

Prevent Chronic Disease

1. Community Food Supply and Health


C. Food-Borne Disesase D. Food Needs and Costs
A. Food Safety and Health Promotion B. Food Technology

Aspec

Concepts: - Modern food production, processing and marketing have both positive and negative influences on food safety - Many organisms in contaminanted food transmit disease - Poverty often prevent individuals and families from having adequate acces to their community food suply

Aspec
2. Food Habits and Cultural Patterns a. Social, Psychological and Economic Influences on Food Habits b. Cultural development of Food Habits c. Changes in American Food Habits Concepts - Personal food habits develop as part of a persons social and cultural heritage as well as individual lifestyle and environment - Social and economic change usually results in alterations in food patterns - American eating patterns are influenced by many different cultures.

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3. Weight Management A. Obesity ang Weight Control B. Sound Weight Management Program C. Food Misinformation and Fads D. Underweight Concepts - Underling causes of obesity include a host of various genetic, environmetal and psychological factors - Americas obsession with thinness carries social, physiologic and biologic costs.

Aspec
4. Nutrition and Physical Fitness
A. Physical Activity Recommendations and Benefits B. Dietary Needs During Exercise C. Athletic Performance
Concepts - Regular physical activity is an important part of a healty lifestyle - Healthy muscle structure and function depend on appropriate energy fuels and tissue-binding material as well as oxygen and water. - -

The Community Nutrition Planning Process - Converts policy commitment into goal-oriented action from a
political process thar draws on information about nutrition problems, their causes and remedies, but depends ultimately on the values and powers of decision-makers: 1. Who are the malnourished?(by age, sex, ethnicity, etc) 2. Where are they? 3. What deficiencies do they have? 4. How many people have them? 5. How severe are the deficiencies?(acute, chronic, degree, duration, functional consequences?? 6. What will happen to the problems if no action is taken?

Nutrition Palnning and Development Reconsidered


Nutrition policy is vital to development policy, proclaim one colleague (Parpia, 1979) And in some ultimate sense he is probably right (Wilford, 1975; Field, 1978) Good nutrition planning and programme implementation will alleviate malnutrition regardless of anything that may be true about the environment in which the planning and implementation are done. (Hakim and Solimano, 1976)

ECONOMIC

POORLY

WASTING

MALNUTRITION

DETERMINANTS OF G-D Concept of Growth & Development


Ebrahim (1985)
Biology Community Physical

Family Individual

Socio-cultural Influence

Economics & Politics situation

Problem of Community Nutritiont


1. Anemia 2. Iod Deficieny 3. Vit A Deficiency 4. KEP Pra Kongres PDGMI: - Gizi kurang Balita (BB/U) 18,4% - Gizi Buruk (Z score -3SD) 5,4% - Balita kurus sekali 13,6% - Stunting (BB/TB) 36,8%

- Ibu KEK (<-1SD) 13,6% - Anemia WUS 59,5% - BBLR 11,5% -Gizi lebih balita 11,4% -Obesitas pria dewasa 11,6% - Obesitas wanita dewasa 22% - Obesitas sentral 29%

Surveilance
The Deutsche Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)

Hungry

Malnutrition

Poorly

Sasaran Program Gizi Masyarakat


1. Bumil dapat tablet besi 80% 2. Persentasi bayi mendapat ASI ekslusif 80% 3. Balita dapat vitamin A 80% 4. Anemia Bumil, Bufas 40% 5. Mencegah balita gemuk menjadi 5% 6. Penimbangan balita 80% peningkatan keluarga sadar gizi 85%

MASALAH GIZI PADA KELOMPOK KHUSUS


Populasi penduduk (manula, bayi) bertambah Angka kematian ibu dan anak masih tinggi Produktifitas penduduk kurang Ketahanan negara kurang Rentan masalah gizi kesehatan pada usia tumbuh kembang Prestasi Olah Raga sebagai indikator kualitas manusia belum memuaskan

FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PELAYANAN GIZI KHUSUS

*KEBIJAKAN STANDAR PELAYANAN GIZI KHUSUS *MANAJEMEN INTERNAL **PROFESIONALISME TENAGA

GAKI

Kurang Vit A

KEP