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Construction Technology iv

Formworks Forms are molds to receive concrete in its plastic form.

Formwork is temporary structure, as such, it is not normally shown on the drawings.

Formwork for Beams and Slabs

Its is an artificial support provided below and around the precast or cast in situ concrete work.

Formwork is commonly made of Steel wood Formwork construction & casting is of prime importance in concrete industry. It share a significant amount of concrete cost.

Qualities of formwork
It should be water tight It should be strong It can be reusable

Its contact surface should be uniform

It should be according to the size of member.

Types of formwork
Formwork are mainly of two types
Steel formwork Wooden formwork Steel sheets Angle Iron Tee Iron

Steel formwork is made of

Wooden formwork consists of

Props Planks battens Ledgers sheeting

Temporary Structure - Temporary structure required to safely support concrete until it reaches adequate strength.

Permanent Structure -Permanent formwork remains in situ for the life of the building

Steel Formwork
This consist of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by small steel angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps or bolts and nuts. The panels can be fabricated in large number in any desired modular shape or size. Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in situation where large number reuses of the shuttering is possible. This type of shuttering is considered most suitable for circular or curved structures.

For heavy concrete work With reasonable care will last indefinitely High initial cost and high handling cost

The first floor circular columns were constructed using steel column forms. The steel column form should be oiled before concreting.

After concreting to the first floor columns, the steel column forms were dismantled easily.

Steel Formwork Company &view=article&id=11&Itemid=12

Compared with timber formwork

Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than timber formwork and their reuses are more in number. Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed. The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such surfaces need no further treatment. Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete. Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.


Steel formwork systems for every size and shape of ground plan, in practical dimension & equipped with different features to make shuttering more efficient.

Flatform Panels Form Work

Application of Push-pull Prop. & Soldier System

Column Formwork

Flat Form Flat Form is used for forming planes such as those of Square columns, walls, slab floors, etc. By combining units of various sizes, flat form can be made to serve a wide variety of purposes.

Corner Angle

Outside Corner Form

Inside Corner Form

"L" - type pin & U-clip

Steel Form for Corners Form can be assembled easily and tightly by using the Corner Angle, Outside Corner Form & Inside Corner Form. We can tailor-made various sizes of corner to suit customer specific requirements & application.

Samples of Box Culvert Design A combination of the Flat form Panels & corners are illustrated in the application of common Box Culvert. Versatile : complete systems made to meet the needs of contractors; Easy to Use : quick assembly & fixing Proven Design : fabricated for tough working conditions

Removal of formwork
Time of formwork removal depends on the following factors
1. Type of Cement Rapid hardening cements require lesser time as compared to OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) 2. Ratio of concrete mix Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to weak ratio concrete. 3. Weather condition Hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as compared to cold and humid weather conditions.

Time of Removal of formwork

Sr. No Structural Member OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) Rapid Hardening Cement

1 2 3 4 5 6

Beam sides, walls & Columns Slab (Vertical Supports remains intact) Slab (Complete Formwork removal) Beams (Removal of Sheeting, Props remains intact) Beams & Arches (Complete formwork removal) (up to 6 m span) Beams & Arches (Complete formwork removal) (more than 6 m span)

2-3 Days 4 Days 10 Days 8 Days 14 Days 21 Days

2 Days 3 Days 5 Days 5 Days 5-8 Days 8-10 Days

Maintenance of formwork
Due to continuous use wooden planks & steel plates surfaces become uneven and require maintenance. For wooden formwork use cardboard or plastic fiber board. Bolt hole places must also be repaired. For steel formwork plates must be leveled by mallet and loose corners must be welded.

Advantages of steel formwork

It can be used for a no. of times. It is non absorbent. Smooth finish surface obtained. No shrinkage of formwork occurs. Easy to use. Its volume is less Its strength is more.

Disadvantages of steel formwork

Limited size or shape Excessive loss of heat A very smooth surface will be produced which would give problems for finishing process Limited fixing

References content&view=article&id=11&Itemid=12 _profiles/structural_products_systems/comflor/comflor_r ange/formwork/