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# Water Loop Calculations

Process Engineering
WATER LOOP DISTRIBUTION

## Simultaneous usage within a

minute
Need to identify users for a
distribution loop
 Water quality
 Temperature
WATER DELIVERY OPTIONS

Basic Distribution –
temperature as stored
Cool/Reheat
Point-of-use heat exchangers
“Chase the tail”
BASIC DISTRIBUTION
COOL / REHEAT
POINT-OF-USE EXCHANGERS
“CHASE THE TAIL”
Line Sizing Calc Guide
Factors to consider include:
 Economics (capital cost, energy)
 Pressure frop
 Velocity
 Turbulence
 Length of pipe run
 Pipe run components
 Noise
 Space
 Plant expansion
 Pump/compressor capability
Pressure Drop/Velocity
Guidelines
Service velocity, pressure drop,
ft / sec PSI / 100 ft
Pump Suct., General Service, low visc. ----- 0.5 to 1.0
Pump Suct., Gen. Serv., near boiling pt. ----- 0.2 to 0.4
Pump Discharge, General Service ----- 1.0 to 3.0
WFI / USP Water, 1" to 1 1/2" 2 to 4 1 to 4
WFI / USP Water, 2" to 4" 3 to 7 1 to 3
CIP Solutions, 1/2" to 1 1/2" 2 to 5 1 to 4
CIP Solutions, 2" to 3" 3 to 7 1 to 3
Compressed Air / N2, 15 psig ----- 0.25 to 0.5
Compressed Air / N2, 50 psig ----- 0.5 to 1.0
Compressed Air / N2, 100 psig ----- 1.0 to 2.0
Saturated Steam, 15 psig ----- 0.5 to 1.0
Saturated Steam, 50 psig ----- 0.5 to 1.0
Saturated Steam, 100 psig ----- 1.0 to 2.0
Pressure Drop - Incompressible Turbulent Flow

## (Re > 3000) Re = Reynolds Number

5 0 .6 Q ρ d = inside diameter, inches
R e =
d µ L = length of pipe, feet
Q = flowrate, gpm
f = a function of
ρ = density, lb/cf
Reynolds Number and
Relative Roughness; see m = viscosity, cp
Crane Technical Paper ∆P = pressure drop, psi
No. 410 ε/D = relative roughness
D = inside diameter, feet
0 .0 0 0 2 1 6 f L Q 2 ρ
∆P =
d 5 ε = 0.00015 for commercial steel
ε = 0.000005 for drawn tubing
Line Sizing Guidelines
Maximum flow rate of 7-8 ft/sec
Maximum pressure drop of 2 lb per 100
feet
 Evaluate the “Equivalent Length”
Minimum flow rate
 3 ft/sec
 Turbulent flow (Reynolds Number > 3000 is
turbulent. >10,000 – 15,000 is preferred)
Line Loses - Equivalent
Length
Typically done when you can only
estimate the linear footage of the
system
Other resistances to be considered
include manual valves, elbows, tees,
reducers, entrances/exits, etc.
Difficult to tabulate the resistances at
this stage of design
Rule of thumb - allow the equivalent
length to be twice the linear footage for
the purpose of the initial pump head
calculation
CONSIDERATIONS
(CIRCULATION LOOP)
c o n tr o l
v a lv e lo s s
s u c tio n
te r m in a l d is c h a r g e lin e
p re s s u re d is c h a r g e
lo s s
te r m in a l
p re s s u re

s p r a y b a ll
lo s s

exchanger
lo s s u s e p o in ts

s u c tio n m e te r
s ta tic lo s s d is c h a r g e
head FI s ta tic h e a d

s u c tio n lin e lo s s
N O T E : c o n s id e r d iffe r e n t flo w s c e n a r io s fo r
p r e s s u r e d r o p c a lc (n o u s e , p e a k u s e , e tc .)
pum p w ear
lo s s
TYPICAL EQUIPMENT LOSSES

## In-line filter - allow 3 to 5 psi

Flowmeter - allow 3 to 5 psi
Control valve - allow 10 psi
Heat exchanger - allow 3-5 psi shellside,
3-5 psi tubeside
Tank jacket - allow 5-10 psi
Sprayball - allow 25-30 psi
Pump wear - allow 5 psi
note: check these values as the vendor information comes in
EVALUATE TWO
SCENARIOS
Hot WFI Loop
Ambient WFI Loop
WATER USE-POINT
LAYOUT

## QC Lab Buffer Prep Buffer Prep Purification

A-10 Fractionation Purification A-7, A-8, A-13
A-6 A-9 H-1, H-2

Fractionation Inactivation
A-4, A-5, A-12 A-1, A-2, A-3
C-1 C-2

Utility

## WFI CIP Ambient Loop

A-11 Hot Loop
H-3
HOT WFI LOOP
HWFI System Use-Point Matrix Estimated Estimated
Use Room Use-Pt. Design Peak
Point Name Temp. Flow Daily Volume Usage
H-1 Purification Autoclave 80 Deg C 5 gpm 150 gals 5 gpm
H-2 Purification Washer 80 Deg C 5 gpm 200 gals 5 gpm
H-3 CIP 80 Deg C 10 gpm 500 gals 10 gpm

## Maximum Possible Draw: 20 gpm 850 gals 20 gpm

From To Distance
Tank H-3 20 ft
H-3 H-1 / 2 80 ft
H-1 / 2 Tank 120 ft

TOTAL 220 ft
HOT WFI
CONSIDERATIONS
Maximum Demand - 20 GPM
Minimum Return Flow
Future Expansion
Storage Tank Sprayball flowrate (???)
 2.5 - 3 GPM / ft of circumference
 400 Gal Tk, 4 ft diameter -> 30 - 40 GPM
Economics
FDA Approval
Service: HWFI Engineer:
Line No.

INPUT
Flow (GPM) 20.00
Pipe Length (feet) 440
Specific Gravity 0.97
Viscosity (centipoise) 0.35
Roughness (ft) 0.00005

## Nominal Actual ID Reynolds ∆P Velocity Friction

Size (in) (inches) Number Flow Region (psi/100ft) (ft/sec) Factor
0.500 0.37 473982 Turbulent 1,717.8892 59.68 0.0227
0.750 0.62 282860 Turbulent 118.2286 21.25 0.0207
1.000 0.87 201578 Turbulent 20.8810 10.79 0.0199
>>>> 1.500 1.37 128010 Turbulent 2.1202 4.35 0.0195
2.000 1.87 93782 Turbulent 0.4538 2.34 0.0198
3.000 2.87 61106 Turbulent 0.0559 0.99 0.0208
4.000 3.83 45742 Turbulent 0.0138 0.56 0.0218
6.000 5.78 30331 Turbulent 0.0019 0.24 0.0237
8.000 7.98 21974 Turbulent 0.0004 0.13 0.0254
10.000 10.02 17502 Turbulent 0.0001 0.08 0.0269
note : Clean Tubing
Service: HWFI Engineer:
Line No.

INPUT
Flow (GPM) 45.00
Pipe Length (feet) 440
Specific Gravity 0.97
Viscosity (centipoise) 0.35
Roughness (ft) 0.00005

## Nominal Actual ID Reynolds ∆P Velocity Friction

Size (in) (inches) Number Flow Region (psi/100ft) (ft/sec) Factor
0.500 0.37 1066459 Turbulent 8,585.3781 134.28 0.0224
0.750 0.62 636435 Turbulent 581.2814 47.82 0.0201
1.000 0.87 453551 Turbulent 100.8326 24.29 0.0189
1.500 1.37 288022 Turbulent 9.9066 9.79 0.0180
>>>> 2.000 1.87 211011 Turbulent 2.0675 5.26 0.0178
3.000 2.87 137488 Turbulent 0.2470 2.23 0.0181
4.000 3.83 102919 Turbulent 0.0598 1.25 0.0187
6.000 5.78 68245 Turbulent 0.0082 0.55 0.0199
8.000 7.98 49441 Turbulent 0.0017 0.29 0.0211
10.000 10.02 39380 Turbulent 0.0006 0.18 0.0222
note : Clean Tubing
AMBIENT WFI LOOP
AWFI System Use-Point Matrix Estimated Estimated
Use Room Use-Pt. Design Peak
Point Name Temp. Flow Daily Volume Usage
A-1 Inactivation Wash Room CIP 25 Deg C 5 gpm 200 gals 5 gpm
A-2 Inactivation Wash Room 25 Deg C 4 gpm 100 gals 4 gpm From To Distance
A-3 Inactivation Wash Sink 25 Deg C 2 gpm 50 gals 0 gpm Tank A-11 20 ft
A-4 Fractionation Wash Room 25 Deg C 5 gpm 100 gals 5 gpm A-11 A-4 / 5 / 6 40 ft
A-5 Fractionation Wash Sink 25 Deg C 2 gpm 50 gals 0 gpm A-4 / 5 / 6 C-1 10 ft
A-6 Fractionation Buffer Prep 25 Deg C 2 gpm 100 gals 2 gpm
C-1 A-1 / 2 / 3 90 ft
A-7 Purification Wash Room 25 Deg C 4 gpm 50 gals 0 gpm
A-1 / 2 / 3 C-2 10 ft
A-8 Purification Wash Sink 25 Deg C 2 gpm 50 gals 0 gpm
A-9 Purification Buffer Prep 25 Deg C 4 gpm 200 gals 4 gpm C-2 A-7 / 8 / 13 60 ft
A-10 Q.C. Lab 25 Deg C 2 gpm 10 gals 0 gpm A-7 / 8 / 13 A-9 30 ft
A-11 CIP 25 Deg C 10 gpm 500 gals 10 gpm A-9 A-6 20 ft
A-12 Fractionation Diafiltration 25 Deg C 4 gpm 50 gals 4 gpm A-6 A-10 40 ft
A-13 Purification Diafiltration 25 Deg C 4 gpm 50 gals 0 gpm A-10 Tank 60 ft
C-2 Batching/Reactor Tanks 2 Deg C 7 gpm 1000 gals 7 gpm
C-1 Fractionization Freezers 2 Deg C 7 gpm 200 gals 7 gpm TOTAL 380 ft

## Maximum Possible Draw: 64 gpm 2710 gals 48 gpm

AMBIENT WFI
CONSIDERATIONS
Maximum Demand - 48 GPM
Minimum Return Flow
Future Expansion
Storage Tank Sprayball flowrate
 2.5 - 3 GPM / ft of circumference
 1000 Gal Tk, 5.5 ft diameter -> 43 - 50 GPM
Economics
FDA Approval
Service: AWFI Engineer:
Line No.

INPUT
Flow (GPM) 65.00
Pipe Length (feet) 760
Specific Gravity 1.00
Viscosity (centipoise) 0.80
Roughness (ft) 0.00005

## Nominal Actual ID Reynolds ∆P Velocity Friction

Size (in) (inches) Number Flow Region (psi/100ft) (ft/sec) Factor
0.500 0.37 692053 Turbulent 18,442.8108 193.96 0.0226
0.750 0.62 412999 Turbulent 1,258.1437 69.08 0.0203
1.000 0.87 294321 Turbulent 220.1296 35.08 0.0194
1.500 1.37 186905 Turbulent 21.9881 14.15 0.0187
2.000 1.87 136930 Turbulent 4.6502 7.59 0.0188
>>>> 3.000 2.87 89219 Turbulent 0.5652 3.22 0.0194
4.000 3.83 66787 Turbulent 0.1383 1.81 0.0202
6.000 5.78 44286 Turbulent 0.0191 0.79 0.0218
8.000 7.98 32084 Turbulent 0.0041 0.42 0.0233
10.000 10.02 25555 Turbulent 0.0014 0.26 0.0245
note : Clean Tubing
Service: AWFI Engineer:
Line No.

INPUT
Flow (GPM) 17.00
Pipe Length (feet) 760
Specific Gravity 1.00
Viscosity (centipoise) 0.80
Roughness (ft) 0.00005

## Nominal Actual ID Reynolds ∆P Velocity Friction

Size (in) (inches) Number Flow Region (psi/100ft) (ft/sec) Factor
0.500 0.37 180998 Turbulent 1,311.6706 50.73 0.0235
0.750 0.62 108015 Turbulent 93.3924 18.07 0.0221
1.000 0.87 76976 Turbulent 17.0159 9.17 0.0219
>>>> 1.500 1.37 48883 Turbulent 1.8080 3.70 0.0225
2.000 1.87 35813 Turbulent 0.3980 1.99 0.0235
3.000 2.87 23334 Turbulent 0.0506 0.84 0.0254
4.000 3.83 17467 Turbulent 0.0127 0.47 0.0271
6.000 5.78 11582 Turbulent 0.0018 0.21 0.0300
8.000 7.98 8391 Turbulent 0.0004 0.11 0.0327
10.000 10.02 6684 Turbulent 0.0001 0.07 0.0348
note : Clean Tubing
CONCLUSIONS
HWFI System
 2” Line, 45 GPM (> 5 ft/sec)
AWFI System
 2” Line, 65 GPM, Min Return Flow of 18 GPM
(2 ft/sec). May limit Expansion
 3” Line if Expansion critical and Cost is not.
Tools: Pipe Sizing - Non Compressible
Fluids, Pipe Sizing - Matrix
Can use other tools for complicated
systems
 Fluid Flow, Hydronet