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CE-313

Lecture # 4

24th Feb 2006

By Engr. Azhar

Flexural Behavior of Beams Under Service Load

When loads are applied on the beam stresses are produced in concrete and steel reinforcement.

If stress in steel bars is less than yield strength, steel is in elastic range. If stress in concrete is less than 0.6fc concrete is assumed to be with in elastic range. Loads are un-factored Materials are in elastic range All analysis and design are close to allowable stress analysis and design.

Assumption for the Study of Flexural Behavior

Stress Strain

Perfect bond exists between steel & concrete so whatever strain is produced in concrete same is produced in steel. All the applied loads up to to failure are in equilibrium with the internal forces developed in the material. At the strain of 0.003 concrete is crushed.

Assumption for the Study of Flexural Behavior

(contd)

When cracks appear on the tension face of beam its capacity to resist tension is considered zero.

Stress and strain diagrams for steel and concrete are simplified.

Stress Steel

Strain

Strain

Flexural Behavior Beams

General Procedure for the Derivation of Formula

Step # 1 Draw the cross section of beam with reinforcement. Step # 2 Draw the strain diagram for the cross section. Step # 3 Draw the stress diagram. Step # 4 Show location of internal resultant forces.

C T la

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

1.

c fc T

Resultant Force Diagram

la

N.A.

s

Strain Diagram

fs

Stress Diagram

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

2.

c fc C fs T

Resultant Force Diagram

la

N.A.

When the tension side is cracked the concrete becomes ineffective but the strains goes on increasing. The steel comes in to action to take the tension.

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

3.

Stress

fc

0.85fc

Strain

0.85fc

C fs T

Resultant Force Diagram

la

N.A.

It is clear that the stress diagram is infect obtained by rotating the stress strain diagram of concrete. Strains keeps on changing linearly in all three cases.

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

Final Equation for Calculating Moment Capacity

Mr = T x la = C x la

Flexural/Bending Stress Formula

f = M/(I/y) f = M/S

f = Flexural Stress S = Elastic Section Modulus

Shear Stress Formula

= VAY/(Ib)

(Valid in Elastic Range Only)

= VQ/(Ib)

= Shear Stress Q = First moment of area h

b d

Notation

b As (Compression Face)

hf h d, Effective Depth d

As (Tension Face)

bw

fc = concrete stress at any load level at any distance form the N.A fc= 28 days cylinder strength c = Strain in concrete any load level cu = Ultimate concrete strain, 0.003

Notation (contd)

fy = Yield strength of concrete fs = Steel stress at a particular load level s = strain in steel at a particular level, s = fs/Es y = Yield strain in steel Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel Ec = Modulus of elasticity of concrete ,Roh = Steel Ratio, = As/Ac = As/(bxd) T = Resultant tensile force C = Resultant compressive force

Notation (contd)

h N.A c=kd b C

la = jd

d

T

jd = Lever arm

j = la /d

kd = Depth of N.A. from compression face, j and k are always less than 1.

k = c/d

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