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Unit 9

Diversity is a major current hot topic in organizations. It is an issue that is still being debated and does not yet have an encompassing model to describe it.

Topics of Discussion


Categories of diversity Ways diversity viewed in workplace Diversity issues


Diversity - simply means differences

Can be visual (race/gender/age) Can be personality/behavioral (extrovert/introvert or outgoing/shy) Can be background (education/hometown) Can be actual or perceived


reduces perception of diversity



categories- genetic differences that affect self-image and socialization

Age, race, gender, etc.


categories- learned characteristics that are acquired and modified throughout life
Things you can work on and change Education, work experience, income lvl, geographic location, etc.

Views of diversity in workplace

Politically correct term narrow in scope, doesnt embrace diversity Recruitment and selection of minorities more concerned with employment laws and quotas Management of individuals from different backgrounds people from different backgrounds bring different flavors to the workplace. In offices with diverse populations, i.e. military

Historical responses to diversity

Discrimination outright or not promoting people Assimilation early 20th century. Recognition notice but not embracing it. Future Valuing we recognize there are differences AND know that there is value to recognizing them.

Diversity Awareness

Exploration of cultural assumptions

Name game
Class Divided

Personalize the experience

Diversity and issues

PROS Ethics right thing to do Increases d.m. capabilities Increases creativity Can enhance performance (div. talents) CONS Lower satisfaction More conflict Can inhibit work being done

Major points

Diversity and the discussion of minority status are far from being resolved. Important to balance the positives of diversity with potential negatives Because of similar-to-me bias, you should actively work to find similarities to help diverse members bond.


Unit 10


Ethics is another Hot Topic in organizations No encompassing model to describe them most previous ethical thinking comes from philosophy.


Topics of Discussion


Kohlbergs model of moral development Moral consistency Philosophical approaches



Kohlbergs model of moral maturity based on Heinz dilemma small down woman dying from disease, Heinz (woman's husband), husband faces dilemma of breaking in and stealing the drug or not (thats the debate) would you? Why? Why not? Does he have obligation to do so? Created to assess level of moral maturity a psyc scale


Kohlbergs stages

Self-centered level moral value resides in external happenings rather than in individuals and standards
Stage 1 Nave moral realism action based on rules; motivation is punishment Stage 2 Pragmatic morality min punishment but also max rewards


Kohlbergs stages

Conformity level moral value resides in performing good or right roles

Stage 3 socially shared perspectives anticipated approval or disapproval of other and anticipated feelings of guilt. Stage 4 social system morality action based on formal dishonor and guilt over harm done to others. Socially asked to leave or embarrassed


Kohlbergs stages

Principled level moral value resides in internalized principles of the individual

Stage 5 human rights and social welfare Gandhi consider values and rights that should exist in society. Stage 6 universal ethical principles perspectives that all human beings should use on each other. Not concerned with others, just your own ethical compass.


Moral consistency

A newer idea that suggests that moral maturity is measured by the consistency of your convictions

Breaking any law is wrong Speeding


Philosophical approaches

Utilitarian approach

Identify courses of action available, who will be affected (benefits & harms), choose greatest benefit and least harm cost/benefits analysis Identify course that respects the rights of everyone Emmanuel Kant right to truth, privacy, etc. Identify fair course that does not discriminate or favor anyone Identify course that benefits all Identify course that a moral/upstanding person would choose and that would be good for character

Rights approach

Fairness or justice approach

Common-good approach Virtue approach


Major points

Ethical issues continue to be of interest to management. You can use some of the philosophical approaches to help you consider potential outcomes of decisions.