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DRILPLEX reducing overall drilling costs

FEATURES
Simple water based fluid design. Unique shear thinning rheology Excellent HSE profile Temperature Stable Cost effective and highly versatile Low environmental impact - easily reused, recycled and retreated Reduced wellbore erosion in poorly consolidated surface formations. Reduced whole mud losses - porous sandstones - fractured carbonates. Exceptional hole cleaning and cuttings suspension capability Improved downhole fluid hydraulics Reduced non productive time and increased penetration rates. Non reservoir damaging Remote location drilling High Angle Drilling Horizontal Drilling Reservoir Drilling Geothermal Drilling Coiled Tubing Drilling Deepwater Drilling Casing Milling

BENEFITS

What is Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO)


It is a synthesized mixture of inorganic Magnesium and Aluminium oxides. It is a white powder and insoluble in water. It is non toxic and contains no heavy metals. The MMO crystal lattice is charge deficient giving the high cationic charge. The MMO crystal is 10 times smaller than a bentonite platelet. - Face dimension ~0.05micron - Edge dimension ~0.0008 micron) The MMO crystal has 6-7 times the charge density of a bentonite platelet.

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The DRILPLEX Bentonite complex


DRILPLEX: positively charged.

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GELPLEX Bentonite platelet with negative faces. Edge charges are pH-dependent.

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The DRILPLEX GELPLEX complex fully formed.

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DRILPLEX System components


GELPLEX - An untreated sodium bentonite specifically selected for the DRILPLEX - The Mixed Metal Oxide product - 0.8 to 1.2lb/bbl (2.3 to 3.5 kg/m3) FLOPLEX - Fluid Loss control additive specific to the DRILPLEX system. - 0 to 4 lb/bbl (0 to 11.4kg/m3) depending on application. WATER - Freshwater for land; Seawater and Drillwater for offshore. SODA ASH - Hardness control CAUSTIC - pH control DENSITY - Barite as required. Maximum recommended mud weight is 14ppg /
1.7sg. DRILPLEX system. - 8 to 12 lb/bbl (23 to 35 kg/m3) prehydrated.

DRILPLEX Shear Thinning Properties

Typical Formulation and Properties


FORMULATION - Gelplex - Fresh water - DRILPLEX
FLOPLEX - BARITE 8 lb/bbl 0.73 bbl 0.8 lb/bbl 4.0 lb/bbl 27.9 lb/bbl 2.85 kg/m3 0.73 m3 2.28 kg/m3 11.4 kg/m3 79.5 kg/m3

Minimal products Easily formulated

PROPERTIES (120degF) - Density 9.0 ppg (1.08 kg/m3) PV YP Fann 6 reading Fann 3 reading 10 sec Gels 10 min Gels Initial After ageing (250degF) 26 21 Low PV/YP ratio Highly shear thinning 42 31 fluid 24 24 High Flat Gels 23 23 High 6 & 3 rpm readings 26 25 Low shear Rate Rheology 50 37 all near the same value

Key Properties to monitor and control.


Yield Point 6 rpm reading 3 rpm reading and 10 sec gel strength should all have similar values in low density, clean fluid in good condition. LSRV range should be:

- ~22 to 28 for normal drilling applications - 60 to 90 for drilling lost circulation zones.
Gels should be high, flat and non-progressive pH should be maintained between 10.5 and 11.0 Soluble Calcium and Magnesium should be maintained below 100mg/L. MBT should be maintained below 20 lb/bbl [57 kg/m3] Pf should be maintained >0.5 GELPLEX: DRILPLEX ratio maintained at ~10:1 PTS 200 added to extend fluid loss of FLOPLEX above 250degF.

DRILPLEX Filter Cake


100 micron

Well Ordered Filter Cake

700mD Sandstone

Formation Damage testing


50.0 Initial Perm 45.0 40.0 35.0 Permeability (mD) 30.0 Return Perm Lift Off Pressure

25.0
20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 DRILPLEX VERSAPRO FLOPRPO

99%

84%

83%

Note - Lower lift off


pressures with Drilplex - Minimal formation damage

DRILPLEX Properties: - Rheology: 64-42-33-22-7-5; PV22; YP20 VERSAPRO (73/27 OWR) - Rheology: 78-50-40-28-16-15: PV26; YP28 FLOPRO NT - Rheology: 50-44-41-32-17-14; PV6; YP38

Summary
Features - Water Based Drilling Fluid
System with simple formulation and design Unique shear thinning rheology Zero flow at wellbore face Low reservoir damage and easy clean up High LC50 numbers sandstones and fractured carbonate loss zones. Minimising wash outs in poorly consolidated formations Easy removal of cavings Stabilising surface formations subject to collapse Reduced drilling down time. Hole Cleaning and Suspension Capability

Applications - Drilling lost circulation zones in


fractured and porous formations Drilling fragile and poorly consolidated and unstable formations. Casing Milling Horizontal drilling Deep Water Drilling Geothermal Drilling Drilling performance in areas with risk of non productive time Remote location drilling Reservoir Drilling

Benefits - Minimising losses to porous


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