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Water Treatment Plant

20 December 2013

Why water treatment?


Raw water contains many dissolved minerals and organic materials. At high temperature certain minerals left scaling on the tube metal of the boiler and cause permanent damage. Some dissolved minerals leads to corrosion of tube metals. Some leads to foaming At high pressure and temperature an element, silica can be carried away with steam causing damage to turbine low pressure stage. A Thermal Power Station needs water of varying quality for different process and hence the requirement. The performance and life expectancy of the station greatly depends on water chemistry compliance.
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Type of water treatment


the type of demineralization process chosen for a power station depends on three main factors : The quality of the raw water. The degree of deionization i.e. treated water quality Selectivity of resins.

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Different water qualities in use at NTPC-Stations


Condenser cooling..Raw water/ Clarified & post-chlorinated water. BA flushing Raw water. Boiler feed water..Conditioned DM water. ESP / Channel flushing..Raw/ Clarified water. Other aux. cooling..Clarified water. H2 generation plant..DM water. Drinking water..Filtered & post-chlorinated water. DM plant operation..Filtered water.
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Steps of treatment process


Aeration of raw water Adding chemicals for bacteria removal Adding chemicals for sedimentation of suspended particles Flocculation Filtration Ion Exchange process water treatment process is generally made up of two sections : Pretreatment section Demineralization section
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What is pre treatment process?


Pretreatment plant removes the suspended solids The coarse components, such as sand, silt etc, can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation the non-separable solids (colloids) will not settle in any reasonable time and must be floculated to produce the large particles which are settle able. Flocculation is obtained by gentle and prolonged mixing which converts the submicroscopic coagulated particle into discrete, visible & suspended particles. This operation is done by flash mixer in the clarifloculator. Proper pre treatment reduce loading on anion and cation exchanger.
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Raw water to Clarified water


Aerator Raw water bay RW make up pumps Clarified water Clariflocculator Cl2 dosing Pershall flume Lime dosing Alum dosing Flash mixer

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A view of Clari-flocculator

Flocculation zone

Clarification zone
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Motion of water in a Clari-flocculator


Clarification zone Flocculation zone

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Clarified water to Filtered water GF Bed


Clarified water FW sump Sand filters DW sump

Clari-flocculator
Cl2 Cl2 House Postchlorination FW pumps Filtered water DM water for Plant 2013 20 December purpose To Township for drinking water
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DW pumps

DM PLANT

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Turbidity & Free Cl2 check

Demineralization plant

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FW water

Demineralization Plant
ACF WAC SAC

Degasser

WBA

SBA

MB CST

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Activated carbon Filter (ACF)


Activated carbon acts on principle of adsorption which is a surface active phenomenon It removes residual turbidity (<2 NTU) of water to its 1/10 level. It removes organic molecules to control colour and odour. It removes free residual chlorine present in filtered water(0.5 ppm Nil)

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Ion exchange resin & its functional group


An ion exchange resin consists of a cross-linked polymer matrix (poly-styrene cross linked with 5-8% di-vinyl benzene for srtuctural stability) to which charged functional groups are attached. Common functional groups are : -SO3-H+ (SAC), -COOH+ (WAC), -NR4+OH- (SBA) and NR2 (WBA).

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Exchange Reactions
CATION RESIN: 2R-H + Na2CO3 2R-Na+H2CO3 ANION RESIN: 2R-OH + H2SO4 2R-SO4+2H2O

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Working of WAC ion exchange resins


WAC resin is capable to exchange cations of alkalinity producing salts only ie, for carbonate hardness removal purpose. 2 R-COOH + Ca(HCO3)2 (RCOO)2Ca2+ 2 H2CO3 WAC resin can exchange ions only in neutral to alkaline pH range. WAC results efficient TDS reduction in high carbonate hardness water. Efficient regeneration takes place even with very dilute acid solution.
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Working of SAC ion exchange resins


SAC resin works over wide pH range & is capable to exchange any type of cations present in salts as sulphonic acid group is strongly acidic. 2 R-SO3-H+ + CaCl2 (RSO3)2Ca2+ 2 (H+ + Cl- )

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Working of Degasser
Water from the ex-cation contains carbonic acid which is very weak acid and difficult to be removed by strongly basic anion resin and causing hindrance to remove silicate ions from the bed. The ex-cation water is trickled in fine streams from top of a tall tower packed with rasching rings, and compressed air is passed from the bottom Carbonic acid break into CO^ and water. carbon dioxide escapes into the atmosphere. Water is pumped back to anion exchanger bed
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Working of WBA resins

WBA resin works over acidic pH range only & is capable to trap any strong type acid molecules present in cation effluent, through protonation of secondary / tertiary amine centre, as the amine group is weakly basic in nature. -NR2 + HCl -NR2H+Cl WBA can be regenerated easily with very dilute alkali (NaOH) solution
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Working of SBA ion exchange resins


SBA resin works over wide pH range & is capable to exchange any type of anions present in water as quarternary ammonium group is strongly basic. 2 -NR3+OH- + SiO32- (-NR3+)2SiO32- + 2 OH-

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Working of Mixed bed


ex-anion water is fed to the mixed bed exchanger containing both cationic resin and anionic resin. This bed not only takes care of sodium slip from cation but also silica slip from anion exchanger very effectively The final output from the mixed bed is an extira-ordinarily pure water having less than 0.2/Mho conductivity, H 7.0 and silica content less than 0.02 ppm.

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Internal Treatment
D.M.Water has a good affinity to absorb carbon dioxide and oxygen, and both are extremely harmful to metal surfaces for their destruction like corrosion, water is finally de-oxidized by a suitable doze of hydrazine, at the point after deaerator. The pH of feed water is maintained at around 9.0

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Regeneration of ion exchanger


During water treatment any deviation from the specified quality in the output means that the resins in mixed bed became exhausted and need regeneration. regeneration of the mixed bed first calls for suitable back washing and settling, so that the two types of resins are separated from each other.

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Regeneration of resin bed


ACF is regenerated by backwashing the bed with air-water. WAC and SAC are regenerated by counter current regeneration with 4% Hydrochloric Acid with a down flow of DM water.

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WBA and SBA are regenerated by counter current regeneration with 4% caustic with a down flow of DM water.

Resins of MB is first separated by air scouring.


Individual resins are regenerated by acid and alkali respectively.
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Regeneration of ion exchanger


After regeneration, the effluent comes out from the system is treated in a neutralizing pit for discharging through normal drain.

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THANK YOU

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