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Geothermal

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Earth Energy By FAHEEM HAIDER HAIDRY

Anjuman Polytechnic Sadar Nagpur-01

Geo means Earth Thermal means Heat

Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the Earth

Earth energy is sub-surface heat from the Sun

Source of Geothermal Energy

Heat Flows outward from the Earths Interior The Curst insulates us from Earths interior heat The Mantle is semi-molten, the outer core is liquid and the inner core is solid

Difference between Earth Energy and Geothermal

Steam

Heat

Earth Energy Heat


Very Hot
Earth Absorption 700 3,000 nm

Surface Heat Reservoir


Deep Earth Reservoir

Core

Geothermal Energy

Deep Geothermal Basics

Capturing Geothermal Energy


The 1st System

In 1904 1st demonstration. Emerging steam powered a turbine to light 5 light bulbs Worlds 1st Geothermal Power Station. 1911 in Tuscany, Italy By 1913 a 250 kW power station had been built and was used to power the Italian electric railway system. Today world production is 5 TWh, or 10%

Capturing Geothermal Energy


Modern Integrated Community System

Earth Energy
Heat Spectra

Earth Energy Heat Pump


A heat pump is an electrical device that extracts heat from one place and transfers it to another

Capturing Earth Energy I

Geothermal Heat Pumps can provide heat in the winter and cool air in the summer best of both worlds Residential and commercial/institutional scale is available. Geothermal heat pumps can be used anywhere in the world without a geothermal reservoir. The insulating properties of the earth, just below our feet, can keep us warm or cool !!

Energy Under Our Feet


17% Reflected By Clouds 6% Absorbed By Surface

19% Absorbed by Water Vapor & Dust


4% Absorbed By Clouds

47% of Solar Energy is Absorbed By the Ground

Technology & Operation Basic System Components

3 Basic Components

A ground loop A heat pump A heat distribution system

Ground Loop: a series of high density polyethylene or copper pipes in soil or water A water and antifreeze mix circulates through the pipes and is pumped directly into the heat pump in the home. Since the ground and air outside always contain some heat, a heat pump can supply heat to a house even on cold winter daysin fact, air at -18C contains about 85% of the heat it contained at 21C

Terms to Know

Refrigerant. Liquid/gaseous substance that circulates through the heat pump, alternately adsorbing, transferring and releasing heat. Commonly used refrigerants are distinguished by the fact that over a relatively moderate range of elevated pressures, they vaporize and condense at temperatures that can generate spontaneous heat flow to maintain interior building comfort

Classified as hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC), or chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFC). Todays refrigerants are designed to have minimal impact on the atmosphere by eliminating the chlorine (hydro-fluoro-carbons)

COP. Coefficient of Performance is a measure of a heat pumps efficiency. It is determined by dividing the energy output or the heat pump in BTU/hr by the electrical energy needed in watts to run the pump, at a specific temperature. The higher the COP, the more efficient the pump. EER. Energy Efficiency Ratio measures the steady state cooling efficiency of a heat pump. It is determined by dividing the cooling capacity of the pump in BTU/hr by the electrical energy input in watts at a specific temperature

Compressor. It squeezes the molecules of the refrigerant, gas together, increasing the temperature of the refrigerant shifting it to a vapor phase Evaporator. A coil in which the refrigerant absorbs heat from the soil/water and boils to become a low temperature vapor. Condenser. A coil in which the refrigerant gives off heat to its surroundings as it condenses back into a liquid. Expansion Device. Lowers the pressure created by the compressor. This causes the temperature to drop, and the refrigerant becomes a low temperature vapor/liquid mixture.

More Terms to Know

Compressor

Compression

Evaporation

Condensation

Expansion

Evaporator

Expansion Device

Condenser

Air Source Heat Pumps


Note: Our focus will be on ground source heat pumps (Earth Energy Systems) which are better suited to the climate in northern Ontario.

Air source heat pumps draw heat from the outside air during the heating season and eject heat outside during the summer season.

Air to Air. Extracts heat directly from the air and dispatches it inside or outside, depending on the season. Air to Water. Used in homes with hydronic heat distribution systems. Heat from warm outside air is transferred to heat water which is distributed to radiators within the home to provide convective heat.

New. Ductless Mini-split Heat Pump.

Ideal for retrofits having hydronic or electrical resistance baseboard systems Wall mounted and installed in individual rooms

Ground Source Heat Pumps

Source. A ground source heat uses the earth or ground water or both as the sources of heat in the winter, and as a sink for heat removed from your home in summer. Access. The heat is extracted from the earth (land or water) using a liquid, antifreeze solution, or refrigerant (direct expansion system)

The temperature of the antifreeze is raised by the heat pump The heat is transferred to the indoor air Summer reversal heat is taken from indoor air and transferred to the ground

Delivery.

Forced air Hydronic radiant Electrical resistance base board

Ground Source Operation I

Location Entire pump system is inside, unlike air source in which one of the heat exchangers, usually the compressor is outside

Open System

Open System takes advantage of the heat retained in underground body of water, usually a well. Water is drawn up directly to the heat exchanger where heat is extracted Discharge is to a stream, lake or pond, where permitted, or a discharge well.

Closed System

Collects the heat through an underground system of piping. An antifreeze solution, or refrigerant, which has been chilled by the heat pumps refrigeration system to several degrees colder than the soil/water circulates through the piping and absorbs heat from the soil

Ground Source Operation II

Heat Cycle

The antifreeze solution or refrigerant (heat carrier) which has circulated through the piping and absorbed heat is brought back to the heat pump in the building.

In the ground water or antifreeze system the carrier passes through the refrigerant filled primary heat exchanger and transfers the heat In the direct expansion (DX) system the refrigerant enters the compressor directly with no intermediate heat exchanger

The heat is transferred to the refrigerant, which boils to become a low temperature vapor - it then goes to the compressor

In the open system the ground water is pumped back to the discharge well In the closed system the heat carrier is pumped through the outdoor piping to be reheated again

Ground Source Operation III

A reversing valve directs the refrigerant vapor to the compressor at which point the vapor is compressed by reducing the volume and increasing its temperature. The reversing value then directs the hotter vapor (gas) to the condenser coils. Here it gives up heat to:

Air blowing across the coil and through the duct system to heat the home Water flowing across the coils and to the radiators in the rooms

Having given up the heat, the refrigerant passes through the expansion device where the temperature and pressure are decreased further before returning the the first heat exchanger, or to the DX system, to begin the cycle again

Technology & Operation


How the Heat Pump Works
Low Pressure Low Temperature Liquid Low Pressure Low Temperature Liquid

Heat pumps transfer heat by circulating refrigerant through a cycle of alternating evaporation and condensation.

Earth

Home

A compressor pumps the refrigerant between 2 heat exchanger coils.


In one coil, the refrigerant is evaporated at low pressure and absorbs heat from its surroundings (blue in the soil/water). The refrigerant is then compressed in route to the other coil where it condenses at high pressure (red) At this point, it releases the heat it absorbed earlier in the cycle (into the home)

Compression

Evaporation

Condensation

Expansion

Evaporator

Condenser

Low Pressure Low Temperature Liquid

High Pressure High Temperature Liquid

Heat Pump Ground Loops I


Points to Consider

Size of the system Ground loop design

Soil Type, Depth and Consistency Land area available

Heat Pump Ground Loops II

Vertical

Most appropriate for suburban homes where lot space may be restricted. Pipe inserted into bore holes 6 inches by 60-200 feet, depending on soil type and system size 100 m piping per ton of heat capacity (3.5kW or 12,000 BTU) DX systems smaller holes, less cost

Horizontal

Rural areas with more property Piping in trenches 3 to 6 m deep 150 m piping per ton of heat capacity Well insulated 2,000 sq.ft. home would use 360 to 540 m pipe

Heat Pump Ground Loops III

Regardless of the arrangement chosen, all piping for refrigerant or antifreeze solution systems must be polyethylene or polybutylene with thermally fused joints to ensure leak free connections for life of the pipe, or 25 to 75 years. DX systems use copper pipe that is of refrigeration grade.

Or
Polyethylene Copper

Heat Pump Ground Loops Multi-Unit Dwellings

Same principles apply for commercial/institutional settings

In room systems compartmentalized and operate independently Integration with Solar PV can help optimize benefits

Pipe Installation
Retro-fit Construction Sites More Urban

New Construction Sites More Rural

Pipe Installation Lesson 1


Oh hi honey, Yeah I told the backhoe guy about your garden

Plan Ahead !

Pipe Installation Lesson 2


Yeah boss, I got the geothermal system up and running just great

But its Going to be hell laying pipe

Look at the Plan !

Odds & Ends I


Hot Water System

Dedicated heat pump water heaters are heat pumps designed solely to heat water. They can be used in any building space heating and/or cooling system, providing on demand, high efficiency water heat year around. Heat pumps can be water or air source. Water is best because of it takes 4x less energy to move an equivalent amount of heat. Water units best for GHP systems, where ground loop is the heat source for the heat pump.

Odds & Ends II

Residential Geo-Electric -- No Hot Steam Source


Binary Cycle Power Plant

Turbine

Load Generator

Heat Exchanger

Binary cycle geothermal power plants are a viable option for residential without a hot steam source at temperatures below 200F. Hot geothermal fluid and a second (binary) fluid with a much lower boiling point than water pass through the heat exchanger.

Iso-butane or Iso-pentane

Rock Layers Production Well Injection Well

Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the binary fluid to flash to vapor, which drives the turbine. The closed loop nature of the system greatly reduces emissions.

Earth Energy - Advantages


Uses 25% - 50% less energy than conventional heating and cooling Improved humidity control Can be retrofitted Long lasting, quiet and easily accessible Less expensive to operate and maintain Investment return of 3 to 10 years.or less It can work in land or water lots of flexibility They conserve fossil fuel reserves and enable their use for higher value products They provide clean heating and cooling with no emissions from burning fuels

Earth Energy - Disadvantages

High initial cost, particularly for retrofitting Horizontal ground loop systems which are the least expensive require a hectare

This can be addressed by combining vertical and slinky systems to reduce spatial requirements

A qualified installer is recommended. However, this does open the door to financial grants that do not come with a do it yourself operation

Benefits of Heat Pumps

They can be used almost everywhere world wide

They are energy and cost efficient


They conserve fossil fuel reserves and enable their use for higher value products They provide clean heating and cooling with no emissions from burning fuels (depending on electricity source)

Geothermal Benefits

Replacing your natural gas furnace is equivalent to parking 2 cars for a year. EPA: Geothermal heat pump systems are the most energy efficient, environmentally clean, and cost effective space conditioning systems available
Originates from the electricity source

Questions

Thank You
95% of people who installed a heat pump said they would recommend heat pumps.and do it again !