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HYDRAULICS 1

HIDROLIKA
SALURAN KOMPOSIT & GANDA,
PENAMPANG SALURAN PALING
EKONOMIS
SALURAN TERBUKA
MATERI - 2
HYDRAULICS 2
SALURAN KOMPOSIT
Aliran dalam saluran dengan kekasaran bervariasi untuk tiap bagian dari
penampang
Horton dan
Einstein (1942)
2
1 3
2
S
n
R
V =
4
3
2
3
2
3
S
V n
R = or

= =
= =
N
1 i
i i
N
1 i
i
P R RP or A A

=
=
N
1 i
i
i
P n
S
V
S
V n
2
3
4
3
2
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
P
n P
n
N
1 i
i
i
e
(
(
(
(
(

=

=

Lotter

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
1 i
i
i
i
e
n
R P
PR
n
3
5
3
5
2
1
3
2
S
P
A
n
1
V |
.
|

\
|
=
2
1 3
5
2
1
3
5
S
n
R P
S
n
PR
N
1
i
i
i
e

=
2
1
3
5
S
n
PR
Q =
PR A =
2
1
3
2
S
P
PR
n
PR
Q |
.
|

\
|
=
HYDRAULICS 3
PENAMPANG SALURAN GANDA
Saluran dengan kekasaran bervariasi tetapi dengan batas yang jelas
antara daerah / area aliran
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
3 2 1
Q Q Q Q + + =
2
1 3
2
2
1 3
2
2
1 3
2
S
P
A
n
A
S
P
A
n
A
S
P
A
n
A
Q
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
HYDRAULICS 4
CONTOH SOAL 2-1
Problem:
A trapezoidal channel with side slopes 1:1 and bed slope 1:1.000 has a 3 m wide bed
composed of sand (n = 0.02) and side of concrete (n = 0.014). Estimate the
discharge when the depth of flow is 2.0 m.
Solution:
A
1
(=A
3
) = 2x2/2 =2.0 m
2
A
2
= 3x2 = 6.0 m
2
A= 10.0 m
2
P
1
(=P
3
) =(4+4)
0.5
= 2.828 m P
2
= 3.0 m P = 8.656 m
R
1
(=r
3
) = 2/2.828 = 0.7072 m R
2
= 6/3 = 2.0 m R = 10/8.656 =1.155 m

3.0 m
2.0 m
1
1
HYDRAULICS 5
CONTOH SOAL 2-1 (continued)
Lotter
n
e
= 0.0157
Q = 22.17 m
3
/dt

= |
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
1 i
i
i
i
e
n
R P
PR
n
3
5
3
5
( )
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
02 . 0
2 x 3
014 . 0
7072 . 0 828 . 2 2
155 . 1 x 656 . 8
n
2
5
3
5
3
5
e
2
1
3
2
001 . 0 x 155 . 1 x
0157 . 0
10
Q =
3
2
2
3
P
n P
n
N
1 i
i
i
e
(
(
(
(
(

=

=
Horton - Einstein
( )
3
2
2
3
2
3
656 . 8
02 . 0 x 3 014 . 0 x 282 . 2 2
ne
(
(
(

+
=
2
1
3
2
001 . 0 x 155 . 1 x
0162 . 0
10
Q =
n
e
= 0.0162
Q = 21.49 m
3
/dt
HYDRAULICS 6
CONTOH SOAL 2-2
Problem:
The cross section of the flow in a river during a flood was shown in the following
figure. The roughness coefficient for the side channel and the main channel are 0.04
and 0.03 respectively. Bed slope 0.005. Estimate the discharge if the area of the main
channel (bank full) 280 m
2
and wetted perimeter of main channel 54 m.
Solution:
A
1
(=A
3
) = 76.125 m
2
A
2
= 280+60 = 340 m
2
A= 492.25 m
2
P
1
(=P
3
) = 52.14 m P
2
= 54 m P = 158.24 m
R
1
(=r
3
) = 1.461 m R
2
= 6.296 m R = 3,111 m
40 m
1,5 m
1
1
40 m 40 m
HYDRAULICS 7
CONTOH SOAL 2-2 (continued)
Q = 3,079 m
3
/dt
2
1
2
1
3
2
005 . 0 x 296 . 6 x
03 . 0
340
005 . 0 x 461 . 1 x
04 . 0
125 . 76 x 2
Q
3
2
+ =
Solution of this problem by the equivalent roughness method of Horton will
produce large error in the computed discharge due the inherent assumptions.
However the Lotter method should produce a similar result.
( )
0241 . 0
03 . 0
296 . 6 x 54
04 . 0
461 . 1 12 . 52 2
111 . 3 x 24 . 158
n
2
5
3
5
3
5
e
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
dt / m 077 , 3 005 . 0 x 111 . 3 x
0241 . 0
25 . 492
Q
3
2
1
3
2
= =
HYDRAULICS 8
PENAMPANG SALURAN PALING EKONOMIS
Bagian saluran dianggap paling ekonomis ketika dapat
melewatkan debit maksimum pada luas penampang, koefisien
hambatan dan kemiringan dasar
Berdasarkan persamaan kontinuitas, jelas bahwa untuk luas
penampang yang konstan, debit maksimum saat kecepatan
aliran maksimum.
Dari rumus Chezy atau Manning dapat dilihat bahwa untuk nilai
tertentu dari kemiringan dan kekasaran, kecepatan aliran akan
maksimum jika R (radius hidrolik) maksimum.
Untuk luas penampang konstan, R (radius hidrolik) adalah
maksimal jika P (perimeter basah) adalah minimum.
HYDRAULICS 9
Bh A =
SALURAN SEGIEMPAT
YANG PALING EKONOMIS
B
h
h
A
B =
h 2
h
A
P + =

0 2
h
A
dh
dP
2
= + =
Bh h 2 A
2
= =
2
B
h OR h 2 B = =
2
h
h 2 h 2
h 2
R
2
=
+
=

r
HYDRAULICS 10
SALURAN TRAPESIUM
YANG PALING EKONOMIS
B
h
r
m
1
h ) mh B ( A + =

1 m h 2 B P
2
+ + =
1 m h 2 P B
2
+ =
2 2
mh h 1 m h 2 P A +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 2 2
mh 1 m h 2 Ph A + + =
0 mh 2 1 m h 4 P
dh
dA
2
= + + =
mh 2 1 m 4 P
2
+ =
0 h 2
1 m
m 2
h 4
2
1
dm
dP
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
3
1
3
1
m = =
3 h 2 3 h
3
2
3 h
3
8
P = = 3 h
3
2
3 h
3
4
3 h 2 B = =
HYDRAULICS 11
SALURAN SEGITIGA
YANG PALING EKONOMIS

r
h
u u
m
m
1 1
tan h A
2
u =
u
=
tan
A
h
( ) u = sec h 2 P
( ) u
u
= sec
tan
A 2
P
( )
0
tan 2
sec
tan
tan sec
A 2
d
dP
2
3
3
=
(
(
(

u
u

u
u u
=
u
( ) 0 sec - tan sec
2 2
= u u u
0 sec - 2tan
2 2
= u u

u = u sec tan 2
u = 45
o
, or m = 1.
HYDRAULICS 12
CONTOH SOAL 2-3
Problem:
Saluran Trapesium mempunya kemiringan dasar 1:5.000, and koefisien
Manning 0,012. Tentukan penampang paling ekonomis untuk debit 10 m
3
/det.
2
h
R
3 h A
3 h 2 P
2
=

=
=
Solution:
2
1
3
2
S
2
h
n
1
x 3 h Q
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
3
2
000 , 5
1
2
h
012 . 0
1
x 3 h 10
2
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
By trial and error method, it is found
h = 2.16 m
3 h
3
2
B =
B = 2.49 m
B=2,49 m
h=2,16 m
r
HYDRAULICS 13
PROBLEMS
1. Design the most economical trapezoidal channel composed of concrete
(n=0,02) to bring the discharge of 25 m
3
/s. The land slope is 0,1%.
2. Do the problem No. 1 for a rectangular channel composed of silt having
manning n = 0,025, and the channel would be built in land of 0,05%
gradient.
3. Determine the discharge in the channel shown below. The slope is 0.0002.
Mannings n is 0.025 for the part below EL. 72, and 0.05 for the part above
El. 72.
EL. 74 m
EL. 73 m
25 m 25 m
5 m
EL. 72 m
EL. 70 m
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
HYDRAULICS 14
PROBLEMS
5. A rectangular has a bed slope 1:1.250 and 5 m bottom wide composed
of gravel (n = 0.03) and side of masonry (n = 0.02). Estimate the
discharge when the depth of flow is 2.5 m.
6. A trapezoidal channel with side slopes 1:1.5 and bed slope 1:1.200 has
a 5 m bottom wide composed of sand (n = 0.025) and side of concrete
(n = 0.015). Estimate the discharge when the depth of flow is 2.5 m.
4. A river is diverted around the city throuh a dyked channel; the cross-
section is shown below. In the central portion Mannings n is 0.024, and
in the flood plain Mannings n is 0.05. The slope is 0.0001. Calculate
the discharge when the water level is 9.14 m above the channel bottom.
122 m
30 m
7,61 m
9,14 m