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Embedded System Spring, 2011 Lecture 3: The PIC Microcontrollers Eng. Wazen M.

Shbair

Todays Lecture
Comparison between Microprocessors and Microcontrollers. Advantages of Microcontroller. Criteria for considering Microcontroller. Overview of the PIC18 Family

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Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller


Microprocessor is general-purpose microprocessors such as Intels x86 family. Microprocessor dose not contain RAM, ROM or I/O Ports on the chip it self. Microcontroller has CPU and fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O Ports and Timer all on a single chip.

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Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller

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Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller


Microprocessor and Microcontroller are widely used in embedded system products. Typically, in an embedded system the microcontrollers ROM is burned with a purpose for specific functions needed for the system. (e.x. Printer)

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Choosing a Controller
The major 8-bit
Freescale Semiconductors (formerly Motorola) 68HC08/68HC11 Intels 8051 Atmels AVR Zilogs Z8 PIC from Microchip Technology

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Criteria for Choosing Controller


1. Meeting the computing needs of the task at hand efficiency and cost effectively 2. Availability of SW and HW development tools
Compilers Assemblers Debuggers Emulators

3. Wide availability and reliable source.

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Criteria for Choosing Controller


Meeting the computing needs of the task at hand efficiency and cost effectively
Determine its type, 8-bit,16-bit or 32-bit Speed Packaging (40-Pin or QFP) Power consumption The amount of RAM and ROM The number of I/O pins and the timer Cost per unit Ease of upgrade.

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C Data width
8-bit Microcontrollers
PIC10, PIC12, PIC14 PIC16, PIC17, PIC18

16-bit Microcontrollers
PIC24F, PIC24H

32-bit Microcontrollers
PIC32

16-bit Digital Signal Controllers


dsPIC30, dsPIC33F

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Overview of the PIC18 Family


An 8-bit Controller called PIC is introduces in 1989 by Microchip Technology Corporation

It includes
Small Data RAM Few bytes of ROM One timer I/O ports

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PIC 18 Feathers
RISC Architecture On-chip program, Code, ROM Data EEPROM Timers ADC USART I/O Ports

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RISC Architecture
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Small, highly optimized set of instructions Uses a load-store architecture Short execution time Pipelining Many registers

Figure 1-2. Simplified View of a PIC Microcontroller

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Microcontroller

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PIC C program ROM


PIC exists in terms of different speed and the amount of on-chip RAM/ROM Compatibility is restricted as far as the instructions are concerns.

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PIC C Program ROM


Its used to store Program or code PIC 18 can support up to 2MB Generally, they come with 4KB 128KB Available in flash, OTP, UV-EPROM, and masked.

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UV-EPROM

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PIC18Fxxxx with flash


Its on chip ROM is flash It memory can be erased in second compared to 20 minute needed for UV-EPROM Used for product development

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PIC18Cxxxx and Masked PIC


One Time Programmable (OTP)
C indicates the OTP RPM Used for mass production Cheaper

Masked
program will be burned into the PIC chip during the fabrication process

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PIC C data RAM and EEPROM


Max. 4096 Bytes (4 kB) of data RAM space. Data RAM space has two components
Varied GPR, General Purpose RAM For read/write and data manipulation Divided into banks of 256 B Fixed SFR, Special Function Registers

Some of PICs have a small amount of EEPROM


Used for critical data storing

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PIC C peripherals
CAN- (Controller Area Network), LIN- (Local Interconnect Network), USB- (Universal Serial Bus), IC- (Inter-Integrated Circuit), SPI- (Serial Peripheral Interface), Serial or Ethernet Interface ADC - Analog Digital Converter USART- Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
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References
Jie Hu , ECE692 Embedded Computing Systems , Fall 2010. PIC Microcontroller And Embedded Systems: using Assembly and C for PIC 18, M. Mazidi, R. McKinlay and D. Causey, Prentice Fall, 2008. Eng. Husam Alzaq, Embedded System Course, IUG, 2010

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