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Peruvian International Maintenance Conference 2010 The Maintenance Engineering and Reliability Pillars of Productivity

Reliable Process Solutions

It Can Operate Forever

Terry Harris, CMRP 656 Ridgeway Dr. Sidney, Ohio 45365 937-371-1644 tkharris10@woh.rr.com reliableprocesssolutions.com

Terry Harris, CMRP

Certified RCM Facilitator Predictive/Proactive Maintenance training Preventive Maintenance Strategies training Lubrication Audits. Lubrication Excellence Training Programs Detailed Equipment Failure Modes training. Training Programs for Oilseeds Industry. Asset Criticality software, assessment, training Environmental, Health, & Safety software/assessment Maintenance Audits Reliable Installation Project Management Services Exam Director for SMRPCO

We are all involved in competition.
We compete with companies in our business lines. We compete with new processes that may make ours inefficient. We are competing around the world! Can LAM be more competitive in the future?

Top 10 Companies No. of CMRPs (thru January 2010)

AEDC/ATA Advanced Technology Services, Inc. Ecopetrol (Colombia) Alcoa Sasol Synfuels (South Africa) Fluor DuPont Allied Reliability Pfizer

112 90 77 71 67 54 44 42 40

CMRPs around the world

USA & Canada USA 2,101 Canada 143 Latin America & Caribbean Argentina 3 Bolivia 2 Brazil 5 Chile 1 Columbia 261 Ecuador 4 Honduras 1 Jamaica 3 Mexico 43 Peru 18 Puerto Rico 19 Suriname 1 Uruguay 1 Venezuela 8 Europe Belgium 1 France 2 Germany 5 Iceland 1 Ireland 1 Italy 2 Netherlands 12 Romania 1 Spain 8 UK 8

Africa & Middle East Bahrain 1 Botswana 1 Kuwait 1 South Africa 78 Nigeria 5 UAE 9 Qatar 14 Saudi Arabia 8 Zambia 1

Asia India Indonesia Japan Malaysia Thailand Papa N.G. Philippines Singapore Trinidad Yemen

3 10 2 1 3 1 1 2 3 1

Australia 52 New Zealand 9

Potential Failure Curve S


PF Interval

Equipment Performance




Reactive 10-15 PP

Equipment Performance Time


Inability to perform precision maintenance More spare parts Expediting of spare parts Unplanned maintenance Unplanned downtime Quality issues E,H,&S issues Inefficient use of maintenance time Inefficient use of operations time Extremely short equipment life Work practices dont extend equipment life

Reactive Issues affecting efficiency

Predictive Maintenance
90% of all equipment failures can be predicted months before the failure! 90% of all bearing failures can be predicted at least 3 months before failure! 90% of all motor failures can be predicted 6-12 months before failure!

Mechanical Ultrasonic Device

Predictive 30-50 PP

Reactive 10-15

Equipment Performance Time


Predictive Maintenance
Reduces collateral damage Time to plan the work Time to do the correct maintenance Time to have correct parts (no expediting) Time to do precision maintenance Less spare parts 30% less More efficient use of maintenance time Less Emergency Downtime Repair work can extend equipment life Safer work conditions

70-100 PP Lubrication Excellence Precision Maintenance Alignment, Balance, etc. Select Suppliers Supplier Specifications Metrics Equipment Ranking RCM/PMO TPM RCA/FMEA RCD Training Programs

Predictive 30-50

Reactive 10-15

Equipment Performance

PM Tasks

Written Procedures
Job Planning/Scheduling CMMS System



Proactive Maintenance
Maximizes precision work techniques Minimum spare parts, 50% reduction Maximum Runtime, Minimal downtime 80% of maintenance tasks proactive Minimal E, H, &S exposure Very Low quality Issues Maximum Equipment Life Lower MRO costs Reduction of Predictive Maintenance Costs Elimination of equipment failure modes Allows you to perform Lean Maintenance

Behavioral Cycle of Despair


Ref: DT, S. Thomas

What are the Factors of Equipment Life Cycle Improvement

Engineering Design Fabrication Installation Operations Maintenance

25-35% of equipment reliability issues are engineering and design related. Poor equipment selection
Motors, Pumps, Couplings, Equipment Options, Pump Bases, Gear Reducers, Fans, Conveyors, Packing Equipment, Etc

Improper sizing of equipment/components Improper piping design practices

Elbows on inlet flanges Pipe strain on equipment Torque methods on fasteners

Poor base/foundation designed/structures Understanding of factory Alignment/Balance

Who makes the best motor? Who makes the best pump? Who makes the best membranes? Who makes the best cartridge filter? Who makes the best actuators/valves? Who makes the best coupling? Who makes the best pump base?
Knowing the answer to these questions is what adds life and reliability to the equipment.

Closing the Gap Between Design, Operations and Maintenance


Ref: DT

Closing the Gap Between Design, Operations and Maintenance


Ref: DT

10-20% of failures are contributed to equipment fabrication Improper Piping Practices
Elbows on inlet flanges Pipe strain on equipment Torque methods on fasteners Improper welding procedures on steel Improper welding procedures on plastic

Improper Fabrication Practices

Un level base structures Base structures in stress Improper/lack of anchoring points Inadequate piping supports

Improper Handling of Completed Equipment
Pick points, Shipping points, Tie Down Points, Support Points

Improper shipping methods

Large items in box trucks Over tension when strapping down equipment Tie downs on critical parts Lack of tie down, moving sliding on the truck Truck Change over, freight company practices Improper packaging, skidding

15-25% of failures are poor installation practices Improper Handling Practices
Pick points, Moving practices, Storing

Improper Anchoring Techniques

Un level floor anchoring, Looks level to me!!! No Grout, Improper grouting methods, Improper Grout material Improper anchoring bolts and torque, Not enough anchor points

Improper Piping Practices

Field piping strain, Piping thermal strain, Conduit strain

Coupling Alignment
Poor or no alignment methods

Poor Lubricant Selection

Installation cont.

Proper viscosity for application Proper lubricant for application

Poor Lubricant Application

Using the lube from the plant Putting dirty lube in the equipment Using dirty lube application equipment Using wrong grease in motors No desiccant breathers

Combo Bad Practices

Precision grout install and no Precision alignment or Balance. Precision methods and high vibration due to inlet water flow.

Installation Failures

10-20% of failures are from operational issues Starting equipment under full load
Could be equipment or programming

Closing discharges valves to quickly Not monitoring thermal conditions Not monitoring physical vibration Not monitoring visual oil changes Operating equipment in manual Lack of fluid to pump on startup Water on components Lack of a TPM program

20-30% of all failures are directly contributed to maintenance before/after startup. Improper inspection of components Improper lubrication practices
Improper/contaminated lube Too much lube No lube analysis, Visual/Testing

No/poor Preventive Maintenance Program No/poor Predictive Maintenance Program No/poor Proactive Maintenance Process No/Improper training of maintenance
No procedures, training programs, follow up, retraining

HSB Risk Study at a Petrochemical Plant


Ref: Oliverson, HSB

Reliability Engineering Pillars

Pillar #1 Knowledge Improving your knowledge and skills to understand equipment function and how components fail.

Reliability Engineering Pillars

Example of engineering knowledge:

How important is precision balance to equipment component life cycles? Using precision balance specifications can add 23 times the life to the bearings.

Precision Balance
A real life example of a loss of bearing life due to unbalance is as follows: Lets use the example of a 12 pump impellor turning at 3600 RPM. This impellor is out of balance by only 1 oz. The 1 oz. out of unbalance equals 275 lbs of additional force on a bearing designed for 1000 lbs. This reduces the bearing life by 48%.

2 mr(2 f ) F = mA = mr 2 = = 0.102 mrf 2 g

F=Force m=imbalance (lbs) r=radius of imbalance (in) f=rotational speed (Hz) g=386.4 in/sec2 Substitute 1 oz. (1/16 lb.), 12", 3600 RPM (60 Hz):

F = 0.102 x (

1 ) x (12) x (60 )2 = 275 lbs. 16

Thus, 1 oz. of imbalance on a 12" radius at 3600 RPM creates an effective centrifugal force of 275 lbs. Now calculate the effect of this weight on bearing life. Suppose that the bearings were designed to support a 1000 lb. rotor. The calculated bearing life is less than 50% of the design life as shown below.
Actual L 10 Life = (Design L 10 Life) x ( 1000 3 ) 1000 + 275 = 0.48 Design L 10 Life

Precision Balance
When you buy or rebuild a motor, pump, or any rotating equipment specify a balance standard of .05in/sec.

Precision Balance can be affected by not cutting keyways in shafts the correctly. The correct method is as follows using the drawing below. Measure from the end of the shaft to the edge of the taper of the keyway slot. This is A. Measure the length of the coupling, this is B. A + B / 2 is the proper length of the key. You are trying to replace the weight of the metal remove in the keyway slot
If keyways not precision cut then have 180 degrees apart

Reliability Engineering Pillars

Pillar #2 Implementation The ability of the reliability engineers or supervisors in implementing the knowledge of available information.

Reliability Engineering Pillars

Example of implementation: How do we effectively implement precision alignment.

NASA states precision alignment can extend bearing life up to 8 times.

Misalignment Failures
A study in the petrochemical industry realized the following results: Average bearing life increases by a factor of 8.0.

Maintenance costs decrease by 7%.

Machinery availability increases by 12%.

Implementing precision alignment means having written procedures and methods to verify that it is actually happening in the plant.

Reliability Engineering Pillars

Pillar #3 Measures: The ability of the reliability engineers or supervisors to measure performance and report.

Examples of Measurements Maintenance costs/RAV OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) Reduced downtime

Reliability Engineering Pillars

Pillar #4 Management and Leadership: No plant process can be complete and successful with management and leadership.

Management & Leadership

What is a manager and what is a leader?
A manager is needed to manage the activities of the process. The leader must make sure everyone understands and constantly supports the reliability process and leads the plant.

Success for Peru

Lets keep the momentum going in Peru. Great resource organization with IPEMAN. Use the information and resources of SMRP and continue your studies to become CMRP certified. Lets make LAM more competitive in the world markets!

Terry Harris, CMRP

Thank You