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# MCEN 467 Control Systems

Chapter 3:
Dynamic Response
Part E: Rouths Stability
Criterion
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Introduction
Goal: Determining whether the system is stable or unstable
from a characteristic equation in polynomial form without
actually solving for the roots.

Rouths stability criterion is useful for determining the
ranges of coefficients of polynomials for stability, especially
when the coefficients are in symbolic (nonnumerical) form
MCEN 467 Control Systems
A necessary condition for Routh
Stability
A necessary condition for stability of the system is that all of
the roots of its characteristic equation have negative real
parts, which in turn requires that all the coefficients be
positive.

A necessary (but not sufficient) condition for stability
is that all the coefficients of the polynomial
characteristic equation be positive.
MCEN 467 Control Systems
A necessary and sufficient condition
for Stability
Rouths formulation requires the computation of a
triangular array that is a function of the coefficients of the
polynomial characteristic equation.

A system is stable if and only if all the elements of
the first column of the Routh array are positive

MCEN 467 Control Systems
Characteristic Equation
Consider an nth-order system whose the characteristic
equation (which is also the denominator of the transfer
function) is:

0
0
1
1
2
2
1
1
s a s a s a s a s ) s ( a
n
n n n
+ + + + + =

## MCEN 467 Control Systems

Method for determining the Routh array
Consider the characteristic equation:

First arrange the coefficients of the characteristic equation
in two rows, beginning with the first and second
coefficients and followed by the even-numbered and odd-
numbered coefficients:
0
0
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
1 s a s a s a s a s a s ) s ( a
n
n n n n
+ + + + + + =

5 3 1
1
4 2
:
1 :
a a a s
a a s
n
n

## MCEN 467 Control Systems

Routh array: method (contd)
rows to complete the
Routh array:

* :
* :
* * :
:
:
:
1 :
0
1
2
3 2 1
3
3 2 1
2
5 3 1
1
4 2
s
s
s
c c c s
b b b s
a a a s
a a s
n
n
n
n

?!
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Routh array: method (contd)
Compute elements for the
3
rd
row:

* :
* :
* * :
:
:
:
1 :
0
1
2
3 2 1
3
3 2 1
2
5 3 1
1
4 2
s
s
s
c c c s
b b b s
a a a s
a a s
n
n
n
n

1
1 6 7
3
1
1 4 5
2
1
1 2 3
1
1
,
1
,
1
a
a a a
b
a
a a a
b
a
a a a
b

=

=

=
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Routh array: method (contd)
Compute elements for the
4
th
row:

* :
* :
* * :
:
:
:
1 :
0
1
2
3 2 1
3
3 2 1
2
5 3 1
1
4 2
s
s
s
c c c s
b b b s
a a a s
a a s
n
n
n
n

1
1 7 4 1
3
1
1 5 3 1
2
1
1 3 2 1
1
,
,
b
b a b a
c
b
b a b a
c
b
b a b a
c

=

=

=
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 1:
Given the characteristic equation,

is the system described by this characteristic equation stable?

One coefficient (-2) is negative.

Therefore, the system does not satisfy the necessary
condition for stability.
4 s 4 s s 2 s 3 s 4 s ) s ( a
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + =
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 2:
Given the characteristic equation,

is the system described by this characteristic equation stable?

All the coefficients are positive and nonzero.
Therefore, the system satisfies the necessary condition for
stability.
We should determine whether any of the coefficients of the
first column of the Routh array are negative.
4 4 2 3 4 ) (
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + + = s s s s s s s a
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 2 (contd): Routh array
4 4 2 3 4 ) (
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + + = s s s s s s s a
? : s
? ? : s
? ? : s
? ? ? : s
? ? ? : s
0 4 2 4 : s
4 1 3 1 : s
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 2 (contd): Routh array
? :
? ? :
? ? :
? ? ? :
4 0 2 5 :
0 4 2 4 :
4 1 3 1 :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
4 4 2 3 4 ) (
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + + = s s s s s s s a
2
5
4
10
4
4 3 2 1
=

0
4
0
4
4 1 4 1
= =

4
4
16
4
4 4 0 1
=

## MCEN 467 Control Systems

Example 2 (contd): Routh array
? :
? ? :
? ? :
0 5 12 2 :
4 0 2 5 :
0 4 2 4 :
4 1 3 1 :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
s
s
s
s
s
s
s

4 4 2 3 4 ) (
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + + = s s s s s s s a
2 ) 2 (
2 5
2 5 2 0 4
= =

5
12
5
20 32
2 5
2 5 4 4 4
=

## MCEN 467 Control Systems

Example 2 (contd): Routh array
4 :
0 15 76 :
4 3 :
0 5 12 2 :
4 0 2 5 :
0 4 2 4 :
4 1 3 1 :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
s
s
s
s
s
s
s

4 4 2 3 4 ) (
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + + = s s s s s s s a
The elements of
the 1
st
column
are not all positive:

the system is unstable
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 3: Stability versus Parameter
Range
Consider a feedback system such as:

The stability properties of this system are a function of the
proportional feedback gain K. Determine the range of K
over which the system is stable.
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 3 (contd)

The characteristic equation for the system is given by:
0
) 6 )( 1 (
1
1 =
+
+
+
s s s
s
K
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 3 (contd)

Expressing the characteristic equation in polynomial form,
we obtain:
0 ) 6 ( 5
2 3
= + + + K s K s s
0
) 6 )( 1 (
1
1 =
+
+
+
s s s
s
K
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 3 (contd)
The corresponding Routh
array is:
Therefore, the system is
stable if and only if
K s K s s s a + + + = ) 6 ( 5 ) (
2 3
K s
K s
K s
K s
:
5 ) 30 4 ( :
5 :
6 1 :
0
1
2
3

5 . 7 K
0 K and 5 . 7 K
0 K and 0
5
30 K 4
>
> >
> >

## MCEN 467 Control Systems

Example 3 (contd)
Solving for the roots using MATLAB gives:

-5 and 1.22j for K=7.5
=> The system is unstable (or critically stable) for K=7.5

-4.06 and 0.47 1.7j for K=13
-1.90 and 1.54 3.27j for K=25
=> The system is stable for both K=13 and K=25
K s K s s s a + + + = ) 6 ( 5 ) (
2 3
MCEN 467 Control Systems
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Time (sec)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Step-Response Versus K parameter
K=6.5
7
7.5
8
10
12.5
MCEN 467 Control Systems
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 4: Stability versus Two
Parameter Range
Consider a Proportional-Integral (PI) control such as:

Find the range of the controller gains so that the PI
feedback system is stable.
) K , K (
1
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 4 (contd)

The characteristic equation for the system is given by:
0
2 1
1
1
1
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
) s )( s ( s
K
K
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 4 (contd)

Expressing the characteristic equation in polynomial form,
we obtain:
0 2 3
1
2 3
= + + + + K s ) K ( s s
0
2 1
1
1
1
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
) s )( s ( s
K
K
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 4 (contd)
The corresponding Routh
array is:
For stability, we must
have:
K s K s s s a + + + = ) 6 ( 5 ) (
2 3
1
0
1
1
1
2
3
3 3 6
3
2 1
K : s
) K K ( : s
K : s
K : s
+
+
2
3
0
1
1
> >
K
K and K
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 4: Allowable region for
Stability
MCEN 467 Control Systems
Example 4: Transient Response for the
System