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KAOLIN

NOT JUST FOR INDIGESTION. Sue Border

COMMERCIAL KAOLIN
White (white firing) non-swelling clay
Also called China Clay Dominantly kaolinite

World Production &'!ort markets

3 mt!a ("#$3%) (mt!a

USES OF KAOLIN
v v v v Pa!ermaking Pigment)*iller)Coating Pigment in !aint)inks +igh Plastics),u%%er -alue Ceramics

o .ineral *iller /ow -alue Products o #ource of Al013 o ,efractories

Commercial Economics
PREMIUM GRADE CRITERIA
v v v v v v v

A high !riced 2aolin has 3


#u!erior 4rightness #u!erior Whiteness Desired !article si5e +igh o!acity (good hiding !ower) Chemical !urity /ow 6iscosity (for !a!er markets) 1ther !ro!erties - a%rasi6ity7 conducti6ity7 etc

Pi men! mar"e!s # $ri %!ness Com&e!i!ors


Pigment Price !er tonne (A$) $39 $9 $0 - $: $39 - $;0

v 8i10 v CaC13 v 2aolin

Kaolin gives good performance for the price

Mar"e!s # Pa&er Deman'


v Pa!er demand increases with <DP v Asian !a!er !roduction to o6ertake "#A %y 0 ; = Asia im!orts 2aolin from3 <eorgia 4ra5il "2
=

#ource3 Pul! and Pa!er .aga5ine

CHINA

KOREA

>APA?

TAIWAN

THAILAND MALAYSIA INDONESIA EUROPE AND MIDDLE EAST AUSTRALIA

CANADA
West Coast

USA

PROJECT LOCATION

TASMANIA NEW ZEALAND

KAOLIN FORMATION
v Economic deposits mainly weathering related v Associated with laterite and bauxite v ormed in wet!dry tropical climate v O"er #$%%m rain pa v Leaching process

LATERITIC (EAT)ERING
BA&'I(E I)ONS(ON E *O((LE+ ,ALLI+ BE+)O-K --- Lowest water --- Highest water

Leaching of cations

MORE EFFECTI*E LEAC)ING


v *ore water .low /.resh water 0 permeability1 v *ore time v *ore bugs v Acid groundwater /oxidising organics1
Parent is only important if time is short or leaching is slow.

REMO*AL OF IRON
v errous leached more easily than .erric2 v Least iron 3ust below lowest water table v But leaching is slow below the water table v Organic grey 4aolins .ormed here2

DIAGENESIS OF KAOLIN
eldspars 0 clays 4aolinite Kaolinite increases in grain si5e The perfect kaolin recipe 6 ormed below water table then raised abo"e it

SEDIMENTAR+ KAOLINS,
v -annot separate 4aolinite .rom other clays by sedimentation2 v All commercial 4aolins are .ormed in situ /,ic4ering 0 7urst #8891 v Ball clays: /9%; disordered 4aolin12

SKARDON RI*ER KAOLIN # 'isco-er..


Andrew <hite in #8=$ #8 holes > in lease (arget o. ?Bulimba@ 4aolin .oundA Older weathering 4aolin noted2 Samples to -SI)O

SKARDON RI*ER KAOLIN #


e/&lora!ion %is!or. &re SRK
v ;(@: 6 +rilled 8B holes 6 geology only v ;(@A - ;(( Bul4 sampling 0 testwor4 v ;((3 6 #== )- holes 6 geology 0 CclayD v ;((B 6 #% ++ holes v ;((B - (A 6 (esting selected drill samples

MISTAKES..
o No initial raw "alues o +id not relate metallurgy to geology o ,oor technical 4nowledge at board le"el o *o"ing goal posts o )olls )oyce plant o *a3or cost o"er6runs o No coordination o. consultants!contractors

GEOLOGICAL )ISTOR+..

Cretaceous - Marine Shale

U&li0! an' (ea!%erin ...

Claystone Rolling Downs Formation

Ter!iar. S%ee! Fl1-ials

Bulimba Formation

(ea!%erin !o 2a1/i!e

Fl1-ial C%annel De-elo&s

Namaleta Creek Floo !lain

F1r!%er (ea!%erin ...

#$ Flu"ial Claystone

Cla.s!one Minin

Conc%oi'al cla.s!one

Fl1-ial in e/&lora!ion &i!

%et &lant DR'LLH(L)S *ND (+,L'N) (F FL+-'*L CH*NN)L

ML an' Drillin

.reen / RC holes Black / *#L gra e control holes

RESOURCES

&ur!le / inferre claystone .rey / measure claystone Blue / inferre flu"ial

Reso1rce S1mmar.
In %%%s t -laystone *easured Indicated EF% 8>% ;9: 9>=
,otal 011 years at 234111t!a5

In.erred $G>%%

*eas H claystone Ind lu"ial

FG>9%

S"ar'on Kaolin Pro&er!ies


-layston KB e Irit content /H F$ 1 6F$ psd BrightnessG 6$ (ISO %) 7ydrous prodDt (ISO%) -alcined bright 6ness B; 9%; 6# E$ 9% $E; 9$; 6# E% 9% lu"ial $$; =%; 6# 9% H=% H=$ 8#

8% J 8#2$ =B

S"ar'on Pro'1c! Ran e


+ydrous 2aolins
Plant ca!acity A97 t!a

Calcined 2aolins
Plant ca!acity A97 t!a

Wide range of

industrial a!!lications ,e!resents the %ulk of world su!!ly 8arget of !aint C ru%%er markets

+igher !erformance 4etter %rightness7

o!acity Com!etes with 8i10 Premium !rice /imited num%er of !roducers Paint7 ru%%er7 !a!er

Kaolin Ore

S!a e 3 Processin 4 (e! Plan!


Blunger Degritting Centrifuge

Sand

Decanter Centrifuge Disc-nozzle Centrifuge

Dela!inating Mill' (eaching circuit

&ailings Da!

High Gradient Magnet Se arator Me!"rane #ilter $i eline to Dr% $lant

S!a e 5 Processin 4 Dr. Plan!


$i eline fro! Wet $lant S ra% Dr%er

$ul)eriser Calcining Kiln $ul)eriser

+ED,1"# 2A1/D?

CA/CD?&D 2A1/D?

MAJOR (ORLD DEPOSITS


<eorgia7 "#A Ama5on7 4ra5il Cornwall7 "2 KKK2the odd one out
Hercynian granite 280mA Debate weathering s hydrothermal !oarse grained well crystallised kaolin "ery limited a ailable resources Product yield #$%20&

Geor ia # Geolo .
-retaceous and (ertiary bedded 4aolins Exposed 3ust south o. all Line -ap bentonite -retaceous E%; 6>micron (ertiary =$; 6>micron

Geor ia # Economics
A+LAN(AIES v (wo types o. 4aolin v Expertise v )eputation v (ransport .or E &SA 0 Europe +ISA+LAN(AIES v Older updated plants v *ine locations v 7igh stripping ratios v (ransport to Asia

Ama6on Geolo .
&nder bauxite exposed on slopes2 )io Mari J ,lioceneG "ery .ine grained 9$; 6> micron2 BEm thic4 deposit2 )io -apim J also (ertiary2 -oarser than Mari2 (hinner and some grit2

Ama6on Economics
A+LAN(AIES ine Kaolin *odern plant +ISA+LAN(AIES v ,ipeline distance v (ransport to Asia

S1mmar. o0 !%e S"ar'on Ri-er Kaolin Pro7ec!


/ong mine life <rowing international demand Premium !roducts &'ceedingly low CAP&F entry !rice 4est logistics for Asia .arketing and distri%ution agreements 8echnical .anagement &'!ertise

Thats it folks!