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Nursing Research


Sources of Research Questions

E Experience L - Literature I Intuition T Tradition E External Sources


Based on trial and error The researchers everyday experience are root of lingering questions to be answered by research


Literature refers to existing published or unpublished researches

Researches may be based on these works to either provide further proof or discredit the results of the previous work.


Based on Intuition or questions innate from the researchers.

These questions rarely originate from the researchers everyday experience but rather as a result of his reflection/imagination


The best source of researches are from questions surrounding tradition

It may include tradition, celebration or superstition.

External Sources

Research questions as a result from consultation or advice from an External Source (i.e. an expert of a fellow researcher)

Definitions of Research

Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena

Definitions of Nursing Research

It includes the breadth and depth of the discipline of nursing; the rehabilitative, therapeutic and preventive aspects of nursing as well as the preparation of practitioners and personnel involved in the total nursing sphere

Definitions of Nursing Research

Nursing research is defined as the scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice

Burns and Grove, 2005

Purposes of Research

Describe Explain



Involves identifying and understanding the nature of the phenomena and sometimes the relationship among them


Clarifies the relationship among phenomena and identifies the reasons why certain events occur. It could be the basis for conducting research for prediction and control


Through prediction, one can estimate the probability of a specific outcome in a given situation. However, predicting an outcome does not necessarily enable one to modify or control the outcome


If one can predict the outcome of a situation, the next step is to control or manipulate the situation to produce the desired outcome

Nurses do research because..

Nursing is a profession

Nursing should contribute to the generation of new knowledge

RA 9173 Section 28 states that, It shall be the duty of the nurse to: (e) Undertake nursing and health human resource development training and research which shall include, but not limited to the development of advanced nursing practice

Classifications of Research

According to level of investigation



Classifications of Research

According to Approach
Experimental Non-Experimental

Classifications of Research

According to measurement and Data Analysis


Classifications of Research

According to time frame

Longitudinal Cross-Sectional

Classifications of Research

According to Motive or Objective

Basic research
Applied Research

Classifications of Research

According to time-line
Retrospective Prospective

Classifications of Research

According research environment


Quantitative Research

Is the investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design

Quantitative Research Methods

Descriptive provides an accurate portrayal of account of characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group

Quantitative Research Methods

Correlational involves the systematic investigation of relationship/association between two or more variables

Quantitative Research Methods

Comparative used to describe the differences in variables in two or more groups in a natural setting

Quantitative Research Methods

Comparative used to describe the differences in variables in two or more groups in a natural setting

Quantitative Research Methods

Quasi-Experimental causal relationships between two selected variables are examined through manipulations of the independent variable but without control or randomization

Quantitative Research Methods

Experimental it is an i=objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena. Characteristics include, manipulation, control, and randomization.

Qualitative Research

Is the investigation of phenomena typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design.

Qualitative Research

Phenomenological describes an experience that are lived by a people.

Qualitative Research

Grounded Theory discovers what problems exists in a social scene and the process persons use to handle them

Qualitative Research

Ethnographic it is associated with anthropology and focuses on the culture of a group of people, with an effort to understand the world view for those who are under study.

Qualitative Research

Historical a narrative description or analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past

Qualitative Research

Case Study involves a thorough, in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or an institution or other social units.