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MECHANICS OF

2

CHAPTER

MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf

Stress and Strain

– Axial Loading

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Contents

Normal Strain Dilatation: Bulk Modulus

Stress-Strain Test Shearing Strain

Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials Example 2.10

Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials Relation Among E, ν , α ν δ Γ

Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity Sample Problem 2.5

Composite Materials

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

Saint-Venant’s Principle

Fatigue

Stress Concentration: Hole

Deformations Under Axial Loading

Stress Concentration: Fillet

Example 2.01 Example 2.12

Sample Problem 2.1 Elastoplastic Materials

Static Indeterminacy Plastic Deformations

Example 2.04 Residual Stresses

Thermal Stresses Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16

Poisson’s Ratio

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics

analyses alone are not sufficient.

forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate.

consideration of deformations in the member.

axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending

loads.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Normal Strain

P 2P P P

σ = = stress σ= = σ=

A 2A A A

δ δ 2δ δ

ε = = normal strain ε= ε= =

L L 2L L

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-4

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Stress-Strain Test

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

σ = Eε

E = Youngs Modulus or

Modulus of Elasticity

heat treating, and manufacturing

process but stiffness (Modulus of

Elasticity) is not.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

stress is removed, the material is

said to behave elastically.

occurs is called the elastic limit.

to zero after the stress is

removed, the material is said to

behave plastically.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Fatigue

S-N diagrams.

at stress levels significantly

below the ultimate strength if

subjected to many loading cycles.

the endurance limit, fatigue

failures do not occur for any

number of cycles.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

σ P

σ = Eε ε= =

E AE

• From the definition of strain:

δ

ε=

L

• Equating and solving for the deformation,

PL

δ =

AE

• With variations in loading, cross-section or

material properties,

PL

δ =∑ i i

i Ai Ei

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 2.01

SOLUTION:

• Divide the rod into components at

the load application points.

−6

E = 29 ×10 psi each component to determine the

D = 1.07 in. d = 0.618 in. internal force

Determine the deformation of deflections.

the steel rod shown under the

given loads.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Divide the rod into three component to determine internal forces,

components: P1 = 60 ×103 lb

P2 = −15 × 103 lb

P3 = 30 ×103 lb

Pi Li 1 P1L1 P2 L2 P3 L3

δ =∑ = + +

A

i i iE E 1A A 2 A 3

=

1 ( ) ( ) (

60 × 103 12 − 15 × 103 12 30 ×103 16

+ +

)

6 0.9 0.9 0.3

29 ×10

= 75.9 ×10−3 in.

L1 = L2 = 12 in. L3 = 16 in.

δ = 75.9 ×10−3 in.

A1 = A2 = 0.9 in 2 A3 = 0.3 in 2

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Apply a free-body analysis to the bar

BDE to find the forces exerted by

links AB and DC.

• Evaluate the deformation of links

The rigid bar BDE is supported by two AB and DC or the displacements of

links AB and CD. B and D.

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500 deflection at E given the deflections

mm2. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 at B and D.

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of

(600 mm2).

For the 30-kN force shown, determine the

deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION: Displacement of B:

PL

Free body: Bar BDE δB =

AE

( − 60 × 103 N )( 0.3 m )

=

(500 ×10-6 m2 )(70 ×109 Pa )

= −514 × 10− 6 m

δ B = 0.514 mm ↑

∑MB = 0

Displacement of D:

0 = −( 30 kN × 0.6 m ) + FCD × 0.2 m

PL

δD =

FCD = +90 kN tension AE

∑ MD = 0 ( 90 × 103 N )( 0.4 m )

0 = −( 30 kN × 0.4 m ) − FAB × 0.2 m

=

(600 ×10-6 m2 )(200 ×109 Pa )

FAB = −60 kN compression = 300 × 10− 6 m

δ D = 0.300 mm ↓

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Displacement of D:

BB′ BH

=

DD′ HD

0.514 mm ( 200 mm ) − x

=

0.300 mm x

x = 73.7 mm

EE ′ HE

=

DD′ HD

δE

=

( 400 + 73.7 ) mm

0.300 mm 73.7 mm

δ E = 1.928 mm

δ E = 1.928 mm ↓

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Static Indeterminacy

• Structures for which internal forces and reactions

cannot be determined from statics alone are said

to be statically indeterminate.

whenever it is held by more supports than are

required to maintain its equilibrium.

unknown loads which along with the other

loads must produce compatible deformations.

reactions are determined separately and then added

or superposed.

δ = δL +δR = 0

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 2.04

Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel

bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at

both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:

• Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release

the bar from that support, and solve for the

displacement at B due to the applied loads.

redundant reaction at B.

and due to the redundant reaction be

compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

and the reaction found at B.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 18

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 2.04

SOLUTION:

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied

loads with the redundant constraint released,

P1 = 0 P2 = P3 = 600 × 103 N P4 = 900 × 103 N

L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = 0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 ×109

δL = ∑ =

A

i i iE E

constraint,

P1 = P2 = − RB

L1 = L2 = 0.300 m

δR = ∑

Pi Li

=−

(

1.95 ×103 RB )

A

i i iE E

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 19

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 2.04

• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to

the redundant reaction be compatible,

δ = δL +δR = 0

δ = −

( )

1.125 × 109 1.95 × 103 RB

=0

E E

RB = 577 ×103 N = 577 kN

∑ Fy = 0 = R A − 300 kN − 600 kN + 577 kN

R A = 323 kN

R A = 323 kN

RB = 577 kN

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Thermal Stresses

• A temperature change results in a change in length or

thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the

thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by

the supports.

• Treat the additional support as redundant and apply

the principle of superposition.

PL

δ T = α ( ∆T ) L δP =

AE

α = thermal expansion coef.

• The thermal deformation and the deformation from

the redundant support must be compatible.

δ = δT + δ P = 0 δ = δT + δ P = 0

P = − AEα ( ∆T )

PL

α ( ∆T ) L + =0 P

AE σ = = − Eα ( ∆T )

A

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Poisson’s Ratio

• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:

σ

εx = x σ y =σ z = 0

E

accompanied by a contraction in the other

directions. Assuming that the material is

isotropic (no directional dependence),

εy = εz ≠ 0

lateral strain εy ε

ν= =− =− z

axial strain εx εx

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading,

the normal strain components resulting from the

stress components may be determined from the

principle of superposition. This requires:

1) strain is linearly related to stress

2) deformations are small

σ x ν σy ν σz

εx = + − −

E E E

ν σx σ y ν σz

εy = − + −

E E E

ν σx ν σy σ z

εz = − − +

E E E

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is

[ ( ) ] [

e = 1 − (1 + ε x ) 1 + ε y (1 + ε z ) = 1 − 1 + ε x + ε y + ε z ]

= εx +ε y +εz

1 − 2ν

=

E

(

σ x +σ y +σ z )

= dilatation (change in volume per unit volume)

3(1 − 2ν ) p

e = −p =−

E k

E

k= = bulk modulus

3(1 − 2ν )

negative, therefore

0 < ν < 12

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shearing Strain

deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding shear

strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle

between the sides,

τ xy = f (γ xy )

previous plots of normal stress vs. normal strain

except that the strength values are approximately

half. For small strains,

τ xy = G γ xy τ yz = G γ yz τ zx = G γ zx

modulus.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 2.10

SOLUTION:

• Determine the average angular

deformation or shearing strain of

the block.

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress

and strain to find the corresponding

shearing stress.

A rectangular block of material with

modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is • Use the definition of shearing stress to

bonded to two rigid horizontal plates. find the force P.

The lower plate is fixed, while the

upper plate is subjected to a horizontal

force P. Knowing that the upper plate

moves through 0.04 in. under the action

of the force, determine a) the average

shearing strain in the material, and b)

the force P exerted on the plate.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

or shearing strain of the block.

0.04 in.

γ xy ≈ tan γ xy = γ xy = 0.020 rad

2 in.

strain to find the corresponding shearing

stress.

( )

τ xy = Gγ xy = 90 ×103 psi ( 0.020 rad ) = 1800 psi

find the force P.

P = τ xy A = (1800 psi )( 8 in.)( 2.5 in.) = 36 ×103 lb

P = 36.0 kips

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• An axially loaded slender bar will

elongate in the axial direction and

contract in the transverse directions.

• An initially cubic element oriented as in

top figure will deform into a rectangular

parallelepiped. The axial load produces a

normal strain.

• If the cubic element is oriented as in the

bottom figure, it will deform into a

rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear

strain.

• Components of normal and shear strain are

related,

E

= (1 + ν )

2G

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4

in. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later

cause normal stresses σ x = 12 ksi and σ z =

20 ksi.

For E = 10x106 psi and ν = 1/3, determine

the change in:

a) the length of diameter AB,

b) the length of diameter CD,

c) the thickness of the plate, and

d) the volume of the plate.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law • Evaluate the deformation components.

to find the three components of

normal strain.

δB A ( )

= ε x d = + 0.533 × 10−3 in./in. ( 9 in.)

εx = + x − −

E E E

δC D ( )

= ε z d = + 1.600 ×10−3 in./in. ( 9 in.)

1 1

= ( 12 ksi ) − 0 − ( 20 ksi )

10 ×106 psi 3 δC D = +14.4 × 10−3 in.

δ t = ε y t = − 1.067 ×10−3 in./in. ( 0.75 in.)

ν σx σ y ν σz δ t = −0.800 × 10−3 in.

εy = − + −

E E E

= −1.067 ×10−3 in./in.

• Find the change in volume

ν σx ν σy σ z

εz = − − + e = ε x + ε y + ε z = 1.067 × 10−3 in 3/in 3

E E E

= +1.600 ×10−3 in./in. ∆V = eV = 1.067 ×10−3 (15 ×15 × 0.75) in 3

∆V = +0.187 in 3

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Composite Materials

• Fiber-reinforced composite materials are formed

from lamina of fibers of graphite, glass, or

polymers embedded in a resin matrix.

Law but with directionally dependent moduli of

elasticity,

σx σy σ

Ex = Ey = Ez = z

εx εy εz

dependent values of Poisson’s ratio, e.g.,

εy εz

ν xy = − ν xz = −

εx εx

properties are anisotropic.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Saint-Venant’s Principle

• Loads transmitted through rigid

plates result in uniform distribution

of stress and strain.

stresses in the vicinity of the load

application point.

become uniform at a relatively short

distance from the load application

points.

• Saint-Venant’s Principle:

Stress distribution may be assumed

independent of the mode of load

application except in the immediate

vicinity of load application points.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 32

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

K=

high localized or concentrated stresses. σ ave

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 2.12

SOLUTION:

• Determine the geometric ratios and

find the stress concentration factor

from Fig. 2.64b.

Determine the largest axial load P

• Find the allowable average normal

that can be safely supported by a

flat steel bar consisting of two stress using the material allowable

portions, both 10 mm thick, and normal stress and the stress

respectively 40 and 60 mm wide, concentration factor.

connected by fillets of radius r = 8 • Apply the definition of normal stress

mm. Assume an allowable normal to find the allowable load.

stress of 165 MPa.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

find the stress concentration factor

from Fig. 2.64b.

D 60 mm r 8 mm

= = 1.50 = = 0.20

d 40 mm d 40 mm

K = 1.82

stress using the material allowable

normal stress and the stress

concentration factor.

σ max 165 MPa

σ ave = = = 90.7 MPa

K 1.82

to find the allowable load.

P = Aσ ave = ( 40 mm )(10 mm )( 90.7 MPa )

= 36.3 × 103 N

P = 36.3 kN

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Elastoplastic Materials

• Previous analyses based on assumption of

linear stress-strain relationship, i.e.,

stresses below the yield stress

• Assumption is good for brittle material

which rupture without yielding

• If the yield stress of ductile materials is

exceeded, then plastic deformations occur

• Analysis of plastic deformations is

simplified by assuming an idealized

elastoplastic material

• Deformations of an elastoplastic material

are divided into elastic and plastic ranges

• Permanent deformations result from

loading beyond the yield stress

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Plastic Deformations

P = σ ave A = max

K stress is less than yield stress

σ A

PY = Y stress at the maximum elastic

K

loading

elastic load, a region of plastic

deformations develop near the hole

• As the loading increases, the plastic

PU = σ Y A region expands until the section is at

= K PY a uniform stress equal to the yield

stress

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Residual Stresses

beyond its yield stress and then unloaded, it is

permanently deformed but all stresses disappear. This is

not the general result.

• Residual stresses will remain in a structure after

loading and unloading if

- only part of the structure undergoes plastic

deformation

- different parts of the structure undergo different

plastic deformations

• Residual stresses also result from the uneven heating or

cooling of structures or structural elements

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

tube of the same length. The ends of

the rod and tube are attached to a rigid

support on one side and a rigid plate on

the other. The load on the rod-tube

assembly is increased from zero to 5.7

kips and decreased back to zero.

a) draw a load-deflection diagram

Ar = 0.075 in.2 At = 0.100 in.2

for the rod-tube assembly

Er = 30 ×106 psi Et = 15 ×106 psi

b) determine the maximum

elongation σY , r = 36 ksi σY ,t = 45 ksi

d) calculate the residual stresses in

the rod and tube.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

a) draw a load-deflection diagram for the rod-

tube assembly

( )

PY , r = σ Y , r Ar = ( 36 ksi ) 0.075 in 2 = 2.7 kips

σ Y ,r 36 × 103 psi -3

δY,r = εY , r L = L= 6

30 in. = 36 × 10 in.

EY , r 30 ×10 psi

( )

PY ,t = σ Y ,t At = ( 45 ksi ) 0.100 in 2 = 4.5 kips

σ Y ,t 45 ×103 psi -3

δY,t = ε Y ,t L = L= 6

30 in. = 9 0 × 10 in.

EY ,t 15 × 10 psi

P = Pr + Pt

δ = δ r = δt

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

b,c) determine the maximum elongation and permanent set

Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16

• at a load of P = 5.7 kips, the rod has reached the

plastic range while the tube is still in the elastic range

Pr = PY , r = 2.7 kips

Pt = P − Pr = ( 5.7 − 2.7 ) kips = 3.0 kips

Pt 3.0 kips

σt = = 2

= 30 ksi

At 0.1in

σt 30 × 103 psi

δ t = εt L = L = 6

30 in. δ max = δ t = 60 ×10−3 in.

Et 15 ×10 psi

to 0Yr

4.5 kips

m= -3

= 125 kips in. = slope

36 ×10 in.

Pmax 5.7 kips

δ′ = − =− = −45.6 ×10−3 in.

m 125 kips in.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 42

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• calculate the residual stresses in the rod and tube.

calculate the reverse stresses in the rod and tube

caused by unloading and add them to the maximum

stresses.

ε′ = = = −1.52 × 10−3 in. in.

L 30 in.

( )( )

σ r′ = ε ′Er = − 1.52 ×10−3 30 ×106 psi = −45.6 ksi

σ residual ,t = σ t + σ t′ = ( 30 − 22.8) ksi = 7.2 ksi

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