Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

Father Of X-ray

 W.C. Roentgen
The branch of medicine that makes diagnostic images of
anatomic structures through the use of electromagnetic
radiation or sound waves and that treats disease
through the use of radioactive compounds.
Radiological imaging techniques include x-rays, CAT
scans, PET scans, MRIs, and ultra sonograms.

The use of radiation for the scientific examination of

material structures; radioscopy.

Radiology the branch of science dealing with use of x-

rays, radioactive substances, and other forms of radiant
energy in diagnosis and treatment of disease
Common radiological test
 Bone Densitometry

 CT/CAT Scan

 Mammogram


 Nuclear Medicine

 PET Scans

 Ultrasound

 Vascular/Interventional

 X-Ray
Bone X-ray (Radiography)
An x-ray (radiograph) is a painless medical test
that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical
conditions. Radiography involves exposing a
part of the body to a small dose of ionizing
radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the
body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently
used form of medical imaging.
A bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the
body, including the hand, wrist, arm, foot, ankle,
knee, leg or spine.
Common Uses
A bone x-ray is used to:

 determine whether a bone has been fractured

or if a joint is dislocated.
 ensure that a fracture has been properly
aligned and stabilized for healing following
 determine whether there is a build up of fluid
in the joint or around a bone.
 guide orthopedic surgery, such as spinal repair,
joint replacement and fracture reductions.
 evaluate injury or damage from conditions
such as infection, arthritis, abnormal bone
growths or other bone diseases, such as
 assist in the detection and diagnosis of cancer.
 locate foreign objects.
 evaluate changes in bones.
General X-ray Machine
CT Scan
CT scanning—sometimes called CAT scanning—is a
noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians
diagnose and treat medical conditions.
 CT imaging uses special x-ray equipment to produce
multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body and
a computer to join them together in cross-sectional
views of the area being studied. The images can then be
examined on a computer monitor or printed.
 CT scans of internal organs, bone, soft tissue and blood
vessels provide greater clarity than conventional x-ray
 Using specialized equipment and expertise to create and
interpret CT scans of the body, radiologists can more
easily diagnose problems such as cancers,
cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, trauma and
musculoskeletal disorders.
Common Uses
 CT imaging is:
 one of the best tools for studying the chest and
abdomen because it provides detailed, cross-sectional
views of all types of tissue.
 often the preferred method for diagnosing many
different cancers, including lung, liver and pancreatic
cancer, since the image allows a physician to confirm
the presence of a tumor and measure its size, precise
location and the extent of the tumor's involvement with
other nearby tissue.
 invaluable in diagnosing and treating spinal problems
and injuries to the hands, feet and other skeletal
structures because it can clearly show even very small
bones as well as surrounding tissues such as muscle
and blood vessels.
 an examination that plays a significant role in the
detection, diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases
that can lead to stroke, kidney failure or even death.
 Physicians often use the CT examination to:
 plan and properly administer radiation treatments for
 guide biopsies and other minimally invasive
 plan surgery
 measure bone mineral density for the detection of
 quickly identify injuries to the liver, spleen, kidneys or
other internal organs in cases of trauma
CT SCAN Equipment
 Images..
 Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound
scanning or sonography, involves exposing part
of the body to high-frequency sound waves to
produce pictures of the inside of the body.
Ultrasound exams do not use ionizing radiation (
x-ray). Because ultrasound images are captured
in real-time, they can show the structure and
movement of the body's internal organs, as well
as blood flowing through blood vessels.
 Ultrasound imaging is usually a painless
medical test that helps physicians diagnose and
treat medical conditions.
 Conventional ultrasound displays the images
in thin, flat sections of the body.
Advancements in ultrasound technology
include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound
that formats the sound wave data into 3-D
images. Four-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound is
3-D ultrasound in motion.
 A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an
ultrasound examination.
 Doppler ultrasound is a special ultrasound technique that
evaluates blood as it flows through a blood vessel, including
the body's major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs
and neck.
 There are three types of Doppler ultrasound:
 Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler
measurements into an array of colors to visualize the speed
and direction of blood flow through a blood vessel.

 Power Doppler is a newer technique that is more sensitive than

color Doppler and capable of providing greater detail of blood
flow, especially in vessels that are located inside organs.
Power Doppler, however, does not help the radiologist
determine the direction of flow, which may be important in
some situations.

 Spectral Doppler. Instead of displaying Doppler measurements

visually, Spectral Doppler displays blood flow measurements
graphically, in terms of the distance traveled per unit of time.
Ultrasound is used to help physicians diagnose
symptoms such as:
 pain

 swelling

 infection

 Ultrasound is a useful way of examining many

of the body's internal organs, including but not

limited to the:
 heart and blood vessels, including the

abdominal aorta and its major branches

Ultrasound is also used to:

 guide procedures such as needle biopsies, in

which needles are used to extract sample cells
from an abnormal area for laboratory testing.
 image the breasts and to guide biopsy of breast
cancer (see the
Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page).
 diagnose a variety of heart conditions and to
assess damage after a heart attack or other
 Doppler ultrasound images can help the
physician to see and evaluate:
 blockages to blood flow (such as clots)
 narrowing of vessels (which may be caused by
 tumors and congenital malformation
 With knowledge about the speed and volume
of blood flow gained from a Doppler
ultrasound image, the physician can often
determine whether a patient is a good
candidate for a procedure like angioplasty.
 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a
noninvasive, usually painless medical test that
helps physicians diagnose and treat medical
 MR imaging uses a powerful magnetic field,
radio waves and a computer to produce
detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone
and virtually all other internal body structures.
The images can then be examined on a
computer monitor or printed. MRI does not
use ionizing radiation (x-rays).
 Detailed MR images allow physicians to better
evaluate parts of the body and certain diseases
that may not be assessed adequately with other
imaging methods such as x-ray, ultrasound or
computed tomography (also called CT or CAT
common procedure
MR imaging of the body is performed to evaluate:

 organs of the chest, abdomen and pelvis—including

the heart, lungs, liver, biliary tract, kidney, spleen,
and pancreas.
 pelvic organs including the reproductive organs in
the male (prostate and testicles) and the female
(uterus and ovaries).
 pelvic and hip bones.

 blood vessels (MR Angiography).

 Physicians use the MR examination to help

diagnose or monitor treatment for conditions
such as:

 tumors of the chest, abdomen or pelvis.

 coronary artery disease and heart problems including the
aorta, coronary arteries and blood vessels, by examining
the size and thickness of the chambers of the heart and the
extent of damage caused by a heart attack or progressive
heart disease. For more information, visit the
MR Angiography and Cardiac
 CT for Calcium Scoring pages.
 tumors and other abnormalities of the reproductive organs
(e.g., uterus, ovaries, testicles, prostate).
 functional and anatomical abnormalities
of the heart.
 lesions of the liver and other organs

(when a complete diagnostic assessment

can not be done with other techniques).
 congenital arterial and venous vascular

anomalies and diseases (e.g.,

atherosclerosis) of the chest, abdomen
and pelvis (MR Angiography).
MRI Equipment
Nuclear medicine

 Nuclear medicine is an imaging modality that

uses a radioactive tracer that is injected into a
vein. It is a subspecialty within the field of
radiology that uses very small amounts of
radioactive material to diagnose or treat
disease and other abnormalities within the
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Positron emission tomography, also called PET
imaging or a PET scan, is a type of nuclear
medicine imaging.

Sample image
Bone Density Scan (DEXA)

 Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy

x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) or bone
densitometry, is an enhanced form of x-ray
technology that is used to measure bone loss.
DEXA is today's established standard for
measuring bone mineral density (BMD).

 Mammography is a specific type of imaging that uses

a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts. A
mammography exam, called a mammogram, is used to
aid in the diagnosis of breast diseases in women.
 An x-ray (radiograph) is a painless medical test that
helps physicians diagnose and treat medical
conditions. Radiography involves exposing a part of
the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to
produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are
the oldest and most frequently used form of medical
common uses

Mammograms are used as a screening tool to

detect early breast cancer in women
experiencing no symptoms and to detect and
diagnose breast disease in women
experiencing symptoms such as a lump, pain
or nipple discharge.
Radiation Therapy
 Radiation therapy is the careful use of high-
energy radiation to treat cancer. A radiation
oncologist may use radiation to cure cancer or
to relieve a cancer patient's pain.
 Radiation therapy works because the radiation
destroys the cancer cells' ability to reproduce
and the body naturally gets rid of these cells.
A radiation oncologist may use radiation
generated by a machine outside a patient's
body (external beam radiation therapy).

Radiation also may be given with radioactive

sources that are put inside the patient (
Radiotherapy Equipment
 Gamma Knife
 Linear Accelerator

A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used

for external beam radiation treatments for patients with cancer.
The linear accelerator can also be used in stereo tactic
radiosurgery similar to that achieved using the gamma knife
on targets within the brain. The linear accelerator can also be
used to treat areas outside of the brain. It delivers a uniform
dose of high-energy x-ray to the region of the patient's tumor.
These x-rays can destroy the cancer cells while sparing the
surrounding normal tissue.

 A linear accelerator is also used for Intensity-Modulated

Radiation Therapy (IMRT)