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Follero, Angelica Mae D. Ibgan, Gina C. Ramirez, Jocelyn O. Macatangay, Carmelo Jose M. Carreon, Yvonne Jazmyne E.

Define values operationally; Explain the value clarification processes; Discuss the importance of values; Trace the origin of values; Classify values; Trace the biological and cultural origin of the Filipino and his values; Compare the opposing value orientations of the Filipino; Identify the positive and negative Filipino values; and Identify the customs and practices which are uniquely Filipino.

Etymologically, value comes from the Latin word valere, which means to be strong, to be worth. Values are those standards by which a group of society judges the desirability and importance of persons, ideas, action or objects. (Maciones, 1997) Values are shared conceptions of or belief in what are considered desirable or undesirable. (Popenoe, 1974) Values are something deserving of ones best effort, something worth living for and, if need be, worth dying for. Values are principles or ideas in which groups and individuals may believe strongly and which guide their respective behaviors; principle by which man lives.

There are 7 aspects of values that have to be clearly defined and presented in order to say what the person has chosen is a value. Choosing 1) Value is chosen freely. 2) It is chosen among alternatives and with consideration of the consequences of choice. Affirming/Prizing 3) There is celebration 4) There is public affirmation of the choice

Acting 5) Value must be acted upon 6) Acting must be repeatedly done in some fashion to a variety of similar experiences. 7) Value should enhance and not impede the development of the emotional and spiritual well-being.

Provide the framework within which judgments is made. Give purpose and direction to the lives of people. Give meaning and significance to life and to the totality of society. Make things diserable, satisfying and worthy of approval. Define what are important to people, what are worth living for and, if need be, what are worth dying for.

1) The Inner Man or Mentalistic theory of Values 2) The Outer Man or Behavioral Theory of Values 3) The Labeling Theory or Cultural Relativism Theory of Values

Economic Values objects with material value ex. Car money, Houes Behavioral Values internalized guides to behavior
a) Instrumental values mode of behavior b) Terminal values results of behavior

Social Values values arising from interpersonal relations Non-Social or Self-Concern Values Moral and Spiritual Values

Non rationalism
Non-Rationalism involves the beliefs in the supremacy of nature and forces outside of oneself like the belief in ghosts, spirits, gods, or deities and other supernatural beings. Example: Bahala na from Bathala na

Rationalism refers to the belief or doctrine that all knowledge and truth is found only in reason, that it is ascertainable by rational processes of thought, and that there is no supernatural revelation. Example: Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi walang bait sa sarili.

Personalism Refers to the tendency to give due importance to intrapersonal and interpersonal relations in working arrangements. Examples: Kaibigan; Kamag-anak; Comadre and Compadre etc.

Impersonalism Refers to the tendency to eliminate the influence of friendship or kindship in working relations. Examples: (in expressions) Walang personalan, trabaho lamang; walang malakas, walang mahina, walang palakasan

Particularism Refers to the tendency of a person to center his or her concern on his or her sub-groups made up of relatives, friends, colleagues etc. Examples: Tayo-tayo system; kamaganak system; kapatiran

Universalism Refers to the tendency to focus ones attention and concern on the promotion of the national and common weal. Examples: Kagalingang pambansa (Public welfare); Katarungang panliounan (Social Justice)

Nationalism Is the advocacy of making ones own nation distinct and separate from others in intellectual, social, cultural, economic, political, and moral matters.

Intenationalism Rests on the belief in having friendly relations between and among nations for their mutual and common benefit.

Bahala na Utang na loob Amor propio Fatalism Sir Use of euphemisms Pakikisama Hiya or shame Paggalang

Pakikialam Tungkulin ng panganay sa pamilya Use of intermediary or go-between Segurista attitude Gaya-gaya Pagmamamay-ari Colonial mentality Filipino time

Social Group is a unit of interacting personalities with interdependence of roles and statuses existing between and among themselves. Social Organization refers to a type of collectivity established for the pursuit of specific aims or goals, characterized by a formal structure of rules, authority relations, a division of labor and limited membership.

Group members interact on a fairly regular basis through communication they affect and influence each order. The members of the group develop a structure where each member assumes a specific status and adopts a particular role: each member accepts certain duties and responsibilities and is entitled to certain privileges The members of the group agree to some extent in important norms goals and values. Certain orderly procedures and values are agreed upon The members of the group feel a sense of identity. They think of themselves as united and independent, somewhat apart from other people.

1. According to social ties: refers to the degree of emotional relationships or quality of the bond.
a) Primary Groups b) Secondary Groups

2. According to self-identification
a) In-group b) Out-group c) Reference group or psychological group

4. According to purpose a) Special interest group b) Task group c) Influence or pressure group 5. According to geographical location and degree or quality of relationship a) Gemeinschaft b) Gesselschaft 6. According to form of organization a) Formal Group

1. Democratic or participate leadership is employed 2. Flexible patterns of communication are used 3. A Cooperative problem-solving approach to discussion or employed rather than a competitive win-lose approach 4. Members deal openly and candidly with another one. 5. Decision techniques which favor a sharing of responsibility via protection of the individual rights are used rather than techniques which place the responsibility clearly in the hands of but a portion of the group.

1. Group Size 2. Type of group goals 3. Motivational base shared by individuals. 4. The kind of group cohesion 5. Social conformity 6. Group decision-making 7. leadership

Leads the people to prosperity or oblivion, freedom or slavery, democracy or despotism One who stands tall among the rest. One who knows the way, shows the way, and leads the way. A true and well-loved leader is long remembered and does not perish in the dustbin of history.

Functional leadership Status leadership Task-oriented leadership Relationship or person-oriented relationship Transactional leadership Authoritarian leadership Democratic leadership Tradition-oriented leadership Development-oriented leadership

Level of education of members Cultural characteristics of followers Standard of living of the group Particular situations Maturity of the staff