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AMON CARTER MUSEUM

Established Location 1961 3501 Camp Bowie Boulevard FORTWORTH TEXAS ART

Type

Philip Johnson was one of the proponents of the international stylea simple and unadorned architectural style that expresses classical structure through the use of modern materials. With the Amon Carter Museum, Johnson created a simple, elegant design that combined the warmth and richness of bronze with the creamy, intricately patterned surface of native Texas shellstone. His design was inspired by the Renaissance-style loggiaa covered, open gallery that looks out over an open court. Accordingly, the museums east facade faces a terraced, grassy plaza surrounded by a walkway.

Sheltered by the arched portico, the museums front wall consists of a two-story curtain of glass windows with bronze mullions. Johnson wrote that this curtain wall separated the art from the city, the cool from the warm, the peaceful from the active, the still from the windy. The main entrance leads directly into a two-story hall of Texas shellstone, dark extruded bronze, rich brown teak, and a floor of pink and gray granite. Beyond the main area, Johnson designed five intimate galleries of equal size for the display of art. On the mezzanine level, he placed five similar rooms for a library and offices.

Although the museum was initially conceived as a small memorial structure, its collections grew rapidly, and the institution soon required additional space. In 1964, only three years after the museum first opened, a 14,250-squarefoot addition was completed to provide space for offices, a bookstore, a research library, and an art-storage vault in the basement. Joseph R. Pelich (18941968), an associate architect of the original building, carried out the work and consulted with Johnson to assure consistency with the original architectural vision.

The museum opened yet another addition, designed by Johnson and his partner, John Burgee (b. 1933), in 1977. It expanded the museums area by 36,600 square feet, more than doubling its original size. The three-story section included more office space, a two-story storage vault, a greatly expanded library, and a 105-seat auditorium.

These new additions, however, did not keep pace with the expansion of the Amon Carter Museum of American Arts collections and programs Philip Johnson would again spearhead the design, making the building as a whole a singular example of his work, a project he called the building of my career. While the 1961 building was retained and refurbished, the early additions (1964 and 1977) were removed, and in their place a vastly expanded structure was erected. With its overall size increased by nearly 50,000 square feet, the museum reopened to the public on October 21, 2001.

SEAGRAM BUILDING
New York, New York, 1957

Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson Client: Seagram company Hight: 157 m Lifts: 18 Status: complete, 1958 Offices

INTRODUCTION
The Seagram Building is the realization, some three decades late, of Mies van der Rohe's dream of a glass-covered, high rise office tower that would provide a stunning monument to the International Style's faith in simplicity and clarity. It was worth waiting for as the 38-story tower quickly began the country's most influential office building, an instant classic. Its almost mythic greatness lies in the tower's proportions, the fineness of its bronze and dark-tinted glass curtain walls, and its expansive front plaza With more than 800,000 square feet of office space, the Seagram Building, which originally was going to be called Seagram House. By setting back its tower, whose front facade rises without setbacks, so far on the site to create the plaza, the building sacrificed considerable rental space under the zoning then in effect.

CONSTRUCTION
The detailing of the exterior surface was carefully determined by the desired exterior expression Mies wanted to achieve. The metal bronze skin that is seen in the facade is nonstructural but is used to express the idea of the structural frame that is underneath. Additional vertical elements were also welded to the window panels not only to stiffen the skin for installation and wind loading, but to aesthetically further enhance the vertical articulation of the building The building was, notably, the first with floor-to-ceiling windows, making the wall a true curtain of glass.

PLANNING
The plan of the building is based on a 8.50 m grid It is a rectangular building supported on piles The floor of the Seagram's, as in the Lake Shore Drive, a rectangle of 5x3 squares structural modules. But the elevation of the building achieves its expressive perfection, simulating a column with its three constituent parts classic.
The elevator core is placed to the back of the building, forming the protruding, windowless back wall of the tower.

PLAZA
Mies response to the city with the Seagram Building was the grand gesture of setting back the building 90 feet from the street edge, which created a highly active open plaza. The plaza attracts users with its two large fountains surrounded by generous outdoor seating. The plaza also created a procession to the entry of the building, providing the threshold that linked the city with the skyscraper. This threshold continues into the building as a horizontal plane in the plaza that cuts into the lobby. The lobby also has a white ceiling that stretches out over the entry doors further eroding the defined line between interior and exterior

The significat success of the building derives from its perfect proportions, and the relation with the surroundings: the building is situated back from the street by ninety feet, and in from the side by thirty. The forecourt so created uses reflecting pools and a low boundary wall in green marble to set off the building, borrowing heavily from Mies earlier Pavilion in Barcelona (1929).

OFFICE FLOORS
The office spaces above the lobby, furnished by Philip Johnson, have flexible floor plans lit with luminous ceiling panels. These floors also get maximum natural lighting with the exterior being glass panes of gray topaz that provide floor-to-ceiling windows for the office spaces. The gray topaz glass was used for sun and heat protection, and although there are Venetian blinds for window coverings they could only be fixed in a limited number of positions so as to provide visual consistency from the outside

THE FOUR SEASONS RESTAURANT


The restaurant, whose entrance is on 52nd Street, was designed by Philip Johnson. Its entrance is a large, travertine-walled and -floored lobby with coatroom and a broad staircase leading to its south dining room and bar in the south base wing of the building. The upper walls of the spacious, double-height room are covered with French walnut panels of extravagantly high quality. A dining balcony is at the east end with a private dining room behind it. The room is highlighted by a very dense brass Richard sculpture . The restaurant stretches to the north base wing of the building through a broad, high corridor adorned with a very large theatrical hanging backdrop for the ballet The north dining room has a large square pool at its center and is brighter and has more landscaping than the south dining room.

AN EXPENSIVE BUILDING
Seagram spared no expense in the building of this particular skyscraper. It is said that 3.2 million pounds of bronze was used in its construction and the liberal use of materials like marble and travertine also caused building costs to escalate. It was the most expensive skyscraper of its time, costing a total of $41 million including the $5 million cost of the building parcel.

CRYSTAL CATHEDRAL
Project Name: Crystal Cathedral Construction year: 1980

Architect(s) : Philip johnson, john burjee Project Category: religious place

INTRODUCTION
The breathtakingly beautiful Crystal Cathedral structure combines both the intimacy and form of much contemporary architecture with the grandeur and magnificence of medieval cathedrals. Located in the city of Garden Grove south of Los Angeles, the Crystal Cathedral has a four-pointed star shape with an exact eastwest alignment. The detached bell-tower stands to the south, next to the original Garden Grove Community Drive-In Church (which now functions as an arboretum). Outside, various modern statues ranging in date from 1969 to 2003 decorate the grounds It is a concept that had never been tried before in church architecture, and has since heralded a new era of church architectural design.

STRUCTURE
The Crystal Cathedral spans a full 415-feet in length, 207-feet in width and 128-feet in height. The size of the Cathedral is enhanced by the all-glass covering that encloses the entire building. More than 10,000 windows of tempered, silver-colored glass are held in place by a lace-like frame of white steel trusses. These 16,000 trusses were specifically fabricated for this engineering feat.

TREATMENTS FOR:
EARTHQUAKE:

The earthquake problem was handled through the use of flexible hinges and siliconebased glue, which allow the glass building to move with the earth. It has been certified to withstand earthquakes up to 8.0 on the Richter scale.
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HEAT:

Remarkably given the local desert climate, the Crystal Cathedral is not air-conditioned. Instead, it uses an environmentally-friendly combination of high ceilings and electronically-operated, staggered windows to keep the interior cool. The glass panels covering the church are highly reflective, which creates a beautiful effect and, more practically, allows only 8 percent of the sun's light and heat to permeate the interior. On winter days when solar heat is insufficient, the building is heated by underground pipes.

The Doors In addition, two 90-foot tall doors open electronically behind the pulpit to allow the morning sunlight and warm breezes to enhance the worship services held every morning
Balconies Huge, white concrete columns the largest ever poured hold the balconies in place. The columns are hinged at the balcony, andor foundation, to permit movement and to withstand an earthquake of the magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter Scale, and wind tunnel tests of 100-miles per hour.

PLANNING
It is a four-pointed star, with free-standing balconies in three points and the chancel in the fourth. "Originally planned to be set in a park-like environment, the building now sits in a parking lot. Portions of the exterior walls open, allowing congregants to remain in their cars while viewing the worship service." It is constructed with a triodetic steel frame, which serves as a gigantic chimney to provide natural cooling . The sanctuary seats 2,736 persons including 1,761 seats on the main floor, 346 seats in the East and West Balconies, and 283 in the South Balcony.

BELL TOWER AND SPIRE


A beautiful 236-foot Bell Tower is comprised of highly polished, mirrored quality, stainless steel prisms forming a spectacular spire which reflects the light in all directions. At the base of the structure is an intimate prayer chapel named the Mary Hood Chapel. Inscribed above the marble walls of the chapel are the words My House Shall Be Called A House of Prayer For All People. The spire has been named the Crean Tower honoring John and Donna Crean who provided a large gift to begin construction in 1988.

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