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What is Communication?

Meaningful exchange of information is called communication. Communication is an ongoing process which comprises transmission and reception of a message.

Types of communication
1. Voluntary Communication: The sender decides the nature of the message to be communicated and structures it before transmitting it to the receiver. 2. Involuntary Communication : Certain cues or signs unintended by the sender are picked up by the receiver for a perceived complete understanding of the message.

Types of communication
Non Verbal : All the cues, gestures, vocal qualities, spatial relationships and attitudes toward time allow us to communicate without words. Superiority, dependence, dislike, respect, love and a host of other feelings and attitudes. Non Verbal Communication is highly reliable.

Types of communication
Verbal : Verbal communication consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns (according to the rules of grammar). Verbal communication act as symbols that stand for your thoughts. 1. Speaking : Business people tend to prefer oral communication channels to written ones for the ease and efficiency. While speaking and listening you can pick up added meaning from nonverbal cues. Benefit of immediate feedback.

Types of communication
Writing : Relying too heavily on oral communication can cause problems in organizations. As organizations grow and the number of employees increase the role of written communication gains importance. Ideally there should be a blend of both written and oral communication.

Types of communication
Listening : Business people spend considerable amount of time in receiving information. To some extent our listening problems stem from our education, or lack of it. Good listening habits is crucial in this era of diverse and international workforce.

IMPRESS : The basic key to understand the Principles of Communication


1. I Idea : Germination and Prioritization of ideas. 2. M Message : The ideas in their embryonic stage have to be concretized and then encoded in the form of a message. Structure of a message = Clarity of Ideas + Analysis of the receiver + Familiarity with the situation.

IMPRESS : The basic key to understand the Principles of Communication


3. P Pause : The delivery of the message should be suitably juxtaposed with pauses. A pause in oral communication is akin to a comma in written communication. E.g God is nowhere. 4. R Receiver : Receiver is a (un)willing party to the ongoing interaction. Receiver is also known as decoder. Decoding of the message is dependent on the mindset of the receiver and the perception of the message.

IMPRESS : The basic key to understand the Principles of Communication


5. E - Empathy : Empathy entails that the speaker be in tune with the receiver. A humane approach, an understanding of the people to be addressed, their emotions, sentiments, feelings etc. 6. S - Sender : The sender refers to the individual who begins the communication process and is also called the encoder. While it is good to be objective in the encoding process, it is almost next to impossible to remove all feelings, emotions or attitude and initiate the process.

IMPRESS : The basic key to understand the Principles of Communication


7. S Security-check : Security check is the natural control system that should always be at work in course of the communication process. It also warns us to be highly scrupulous in the communication process. Lack of security check may lead to: i. Misinterpretation of words ii. Misperception of reality iii. Difference in attitudes, opinions and emotions.

The Process of Communication


1. Sender : The sender refers to the individual who begins the communication process and is also called the encoder. Encoding is the process of selecting and formulating the information to be conveyed. Sender should mentally visualize the communication from the receivers point of view. The order of priority improves the chances of effective communication.

The Process of Communication


2. Message : Information being transmitted which includes both verbal and non-verbal data. Verbal information is the part of the message that is heard. Nonverbal information entails such things as body language and the surrounding environment. Nonverbal part of the message substantiates the verbal part.

The Process of Communication


3. Channel : It is the means used to convey the message. To physically transmit the message, we select a communication channel and a medium. A communication channel could be nonverbal, spoken or written. The medium could be telephone, computer, fax, letter, memo, report, face-to-face etc. In majority of cases, both oral and written channels should be used for one supplements the other.

The Process of Communication


4.

Receiver : The individual to whom the message is directed. Comprehension of the message depends on a number of factors, including how much the individual knows about the topic (Accounting principles). His receptivity to the message The relationship and trust between sender and receiver. (Arjuna and Krishna) The receivers understanding and the perception of the information being conveyed.

The Process of Communication


5. Feedback : Receivers response to a message; it can take a number of verbal and nonverbal forms. (On policy implementation, Foreign working style etc.) Feedback reveals attitude, perception and comprehension or lack of it. Nodding ones head, shrugging, grimacing, smiling, winking, rolling ones eyes, tongue in check, eye contact, looking away.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Impediments/blocks/obstacles in the process of communication that hinder smooth progression of ideas and concepts. Barriers are formed at the time of encoding or decoding the message. The end result is always the same ineffective communication or miscommunication. Each individual possesses a mental filter which is similar to a sieve.

Barriers can be categorized as : 1. Sender-oriented 2. Receiver-oriented

Sender-oriented Barriers : Blocks in the mental process which the sender may experience in the course of encoding the message. Some sender-oriented barriers are: 1. Groping for the right message : It results from the lack of preparation and lack of cohesion in the thinking process. (Instance of a foreign restaurant franchisee) How do I make it relevant to the audience? What are their needs? How do I sift through the information?

Sender-oriented Barriers
2. Superior attitude : This barrier surfaces because of I know it all attitude or a feeling of superiority in the sender. (Downfall of Kauravas) The skill set of the audience should always be taken into account. Communication that begins on an uneven platform can never be successful. Lack of collaborative effort : Communication is a linear process. It can proceed only if there is equal support from both the sender and the receiver.

This barrier (Lack of collaborative effort) is due to the existence of egotism I attitude. (SIP award) 4. Mental blocks : Preconceived ideas and notions create a block in the mind and prevent the sender from being able to view the issues from the receivers perspective. (Elephant tied with a chain) It is highly contingent on the previous experiences at the personal or organizational front. 5. Lack of language skills : Inability to transmit the message in a language that is understood by the receiver. For technical employees, use technical jargon, for line workers, use vernacular dialect.

Sender-oriented Barriers

Sender-oriented Barriers
6. Bypassing : Overlooking the meaning embedded in the communication and proceeding by a literal meaning of words. Failing in reading between the lines. (Results on the first day of the next year). 7. Frame of reference : Each individual has a frame of reference or a perceptual zone on the basis of which inferences are made or thoughts are structured. This perceptual zone is a result of the environment or culture in which the individual grows and develops. (instance of science graduates are smart).

Sender-oriented Barriers
8. Distractions : are normally physical, i.e. a noise in the room or movement. They can also be mental. 9. Quantum of communication : i.e. according to the need of the audience. The content should not be too much or too little. 10. Lack of clarity : A badly formulated message, in which there is lack of clarity, gives rise to ambiguity in the message.