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William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7 th Edition

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7 Edition Chapter 5 Signal Encoding Techniques 1

Chapter 5 Signal Encoding Techniques

Encoding Techniques

Encoding Techniques • Both analog and digital information can be encoded as either analog or digital

Both analog and digital information can be encoded as either analog or digital signals

Digital data, digital signal simplest form, binary ones and zeros

Digital data, analog signal Modem converts digital data to analog signal to transmit over

analog line

Analog data, digital signal digitize analog data for digital transmission

Analog data, analog signal no conversion (voice, telephone)

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Digital Data, Digital Signal • Digital signal — Discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses — Each pulse is

Digital signal

Discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses Each pulse is a signal element Binary data encoded into signal elements

Terms (1)

Terms (1) • Unipolar — All signal elements have same sign (either positive OR negative •

Unipolar

All signal elements have same sign (either positive OR negative

Polar

One logic state represented by positive voltage the other by negative voltage

Data rate

Rate of data transmission in bits per second

Duration or length of a bit

Time taken for transmitter to emit the bit

Terms (2)

Terms (2) • Modulation rate — Rate at which the signal level changes — Measured in

Modulation rate

Rate at which the signal level changes Measured in baud = signal elements per second

Mark and Space

Binary 1 and Binary 0 respectively

Interpreting Signals

Interpreting Signals • Need to know — Timing of bits - when they start and end

Need to know

Timing of bits - when they start and end Signal levels (0 vs. 1)

Factors affecting successful interpreting of signals

Increased data rate, increased bit error rate (BER) Increased noise, increased BER Increase bandwidth enables an increased data rate

Comparison of Encoding Schemes

Comparison of Encoding Schemes • Need to be able to determine beginning and end of each

Need to be able to determine beginning and end of each bit (clocking or synchronization)

Error detection

Can be built in to signal encoding (parity, check sum, etc.)

Signal interference and noise immunity

Some codes are better than others

Cost and complexity

Higher signal rate (& thus data rate) lead to higher costs

Digital Signal: Nonreturn to Zero- Level (NRZ-L)

Digital Signal: Nonreturn to Zero- Level (NRZ-L) • Two different voltages (+ and – OR +

Two different voltages (+ and OR + and none) for 0 and 1 bits

Voltage constant during bit interval

no transition I.e. no return to zero voltage

e.g. Absence of voltage for zero, constant positive voltage for one

More often, negative voltage for one value and positive for the other

NRZ

NRZ 9
NRZ 9

NRZ pros and cons

NRZ pros and cons • Pros — Easy to engineer — Make good use of bandwidth

Pros

Easy to engineer Make good use of bandwidth

Cons

dc component Lack of synchronization capability

Used for magnetic recording Not often used for signal transmission

Modulation Rate

Modulation Rate 11
Modulation Rate 11

11

Digital Data, Analog Signal

Digital Data, Analog Signal • Public telephone system — 300Hz to 3400Hz — Use modem (modulator-demodulator)

Public telephone system

300Hz to 3400Hz Use modem (modulator-demodulator)

Amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PK)

Modulation Techniques

Modulation Techniques 13

Amplitude Shift Keying

Amplitude Shift Keying • Values represented by different amplitudes of carrier • Usually, one amplitude is

Values represented by different amplitudes of carrier

Usually, one amplitude is zero

i.e. presence and absence of carrier is used

Susceptible to sudden gain changes Inefficient Up to 1200bps on voice grade lines Used over optical fiber

Binary Frequency Shift Keying

Binary Frequency Shift Keying • Most common form is binary FSK (BFSK) • Two binary values

Most common form is binary FSK (BFSK) Two binary values represented by two different frequencies (near carrier) Less susceptible to error than ASK Up to 1200bps on voice grade lines High frequency radio Even higher frequency on LANs using co-ax

Multiple FSK

Multiple FSK • More than two frequencies used • More bandwidth efficient • More prone to

More than two frequencies used More bandwidth efficient More prone to error

Each signalling element represents more than one bit

Phase Shift Keying

Phase Shift Keying • Phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent data • Binary PSK

Phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent data

Binary PSK

Two phases represent two binary digits

Differential PSK

Phase shifted relative to previous transmission rather than some reference signal

Differential PSK

Differential PSK 18
Differential PSK 18

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Analog Data, Digital Signal • Digitization — Conversion of analog data into digital data — Digital

Digitization

Conversion of analog data into digital data Digital data can then be transmitted using NRZ-L Digital data can then be transmitted using code other than NRZ-L Digital data can then be converted to analog signal Analog to digital conversion done using a codec Pulse code modulation

Digitizing Analog Data

Digitizing Analog Data 20
Digitizing Analog Data 20
Digitizing Analog Data 20

Analog Data, Analog Signals

Analog Data, Analog Signals • Why modulate analog signals? — Higher frequency can give more efficient

Why modulate analog signals?

Higher frequency can give more efficient transmission Permits frequency division multiplexing (chapter 8)

Types of modulation

Amplitude

Frequency

Phase

Analog

Modulation

Analog Modulation 22

Required Reading

Required Reading • Stallings chapter 5 23

Stallings chapter 5

Chapter 5 Review Questions

Chapter 5 Review Questions • List and briefly define factors used to evaluate or compare the

List and briefly define factors used to evaluate or compare the various digital-to-digital encoding techniques

What do you need to know in order to interpret a signal?

What is the difference between NRZ-L and NRZI? What function does a modem perform? How are binary values represented in ASK? Compare and contrast ASK, FSK, and PSK.