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Foundations of Individual Behavior

S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S

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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Define the key biographical characteristics.
2. Identify two types of ability. 3. Shape the behavior of others.


4. Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement.

5. Clarify the role of punishment in learning. 6. Practice self-management
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Biographical Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristicssuch as age, gender, and marital statusthat are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.

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Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence

Ability An individuals capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.

Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities.

Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
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Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)

Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University, USA The traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. These intelligences are: 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") 2. Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") 3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")

Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983) (Key points)

Dr. Gardner says that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. We esteem the highly articulate or logical people of our culture. However, Dr. Gardner says that we should also place equal attention on individuals who show gifts in the other intelligences: the artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs, and others who enrich the world in which we live. Unfortunately, many children who have these gifts dont receive much reinforcement for them in school. Many of these kids, in fact, end up being labeled "learning disabled," "ADD (attention deficit disorder," or simply underachievers, when their unique ways of thinking and learning arent addressed by a heavily linguistic or logicalmathematical classroom. The theory of multiple intelligences proposes a major transformation in the way our schools are run. It suggests that teachers be trained to present their lessons in a wide variety of ways using music, cooperative learning, art activities, role play, multimedia, field trips, inner reflection, and much more.
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Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983) (Key points, continued)

The theory of multiple intelligences also has strong implications for adult learning and development. Many adults find themselves in jobs that do not make optimal use of their most highly developed intelligences (e.g., the highly bodily-kinesthetic individual who is stuck in a linguistic or logical desk-job when he or she would be much happier in a job where they could move around, such as a recreational leader, a forest ranger, or physical therapist). The theory of multiple intelligences gives adults a whole new way to look at their lives, examining potentials that they left behind in their childhood (such as a love for art or drama) but now have the opportunity to develop through courses, hobbies, or other programs of self-development
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Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

Number aptitude Deductive Reasoning

Verbal comprehension
Perceptual speed Inductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning
Spatial visualization
The ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and

Inductive Reasoning

3-dimensional figures

Spatial: (1) of or pertaining to space (2) existing or occurring in space; having extension in space.


The Ability-Job Fit

Ability-Job Fit

Employees Abilities

Jobs Ability Requirements

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Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

Involves change Is relatively permanent

Is acquired through experience

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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 - 1936) Russian physiologist


Theories of Learning
1. Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Key Concepts Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response
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Classical Conditioning: Key concepts explained

1.1 Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.

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Classical Conditioning: Key concepts explained

1.2 Unconditioned Response

The unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the smell of food is the unconditioned stimulus, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.


Classical Conditioning: Key concepts explained

1.3 Conditioned Stimulus
Previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. Suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus and a feeling of hunger is the unconditioned response. Now, imagine that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus.

Classical Conditioning: Key concepts explained

1.4 Conditioned Response
The learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. For example, let's suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response the smell is a unconditioned response, and a the sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.

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Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 1990) PhD from Harvard University in 1931 American behaviorist, author, inventor, social philosopher and poet.

Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning or Skinnerian Conditioning

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Theories of Learning (contd)

2. Operant (or Instrumental) Conditioning
A method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.

Key Concepts

Reflexive (unlearned) behavior

Conditioned (learned) behavior Reinforcement
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Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner, which is why, you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian Conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day.
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Examples of Operant Conditioning

We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions. In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior. The removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviors. For example, a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors.

Four types of learning processes in Operant Conditioning

a learning process that involves an increase or decrease in the likelihood of some behavior as a result of the consequences.

1. Positive reinforcement

2. Negative reinforcement
3. Positive punishment

4. Negative punishment.

Four types of learning processes in Operant Conditioning (contd)

A reinforcer is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers:

A) Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. B) Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.

Components of Operant Conditioning (contd)

Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment:

A) Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application of an adverse stimulus, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. B) Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal of a pleasant stimulus, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights 223

Operant Conditioning Examples

Examples of Positive Reinforcement 1. We may continue to go to work each day because we receive a paycheck on a weekly or monthly basis. 2. If we receive awards for writing short stories, we may be more likely to increase the frequency of writing short stories.

Operant Conditioning Examples

Examples of Negative Reinforcement
Imagine that you decided to open a window in your home. However, you are not happy with the noise from the traffic. Thus, you decide to turn on the radio and listen to music. This makes the traffic noise less noticeable. The frequency in which you turn on the radio when the window is open has increased. This would be an example of negative reinforcement. Turning on the radio has resulted in a decrease in the unpleasantness of the traffic noise.

Operant Conditioning Examples

Examples of Positive Punishment
1. The negative behavior of an employee decreases as the result of being criticized by a supervisor.


Operant Conditioning Examples

Examples of Negative Punishment 1. The frequency in which an employee is late for work deceases as a result of losing the right to listen to music while s/he works.


Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment

It is important to not confuse negative reinforcement and negative punishment.
They are different.

Negative reinforcement involves an increase in a behavior. In contrast, punishment involves a decrease in a behavior.

The definition requires that punishment is only determined after the fact by the reduction in behavior; if the offending behavior of the subject does not decrease then it is not considered punishment.

Do positive reinforcement techniques lead to ideal employees in a company?

It depends The use of positive reinforcement techniques may result in people becoming more extrinsically motivated. The ideal employee may be one who is intrinsically motivated and does not require constant supervision. Intrinsically motivated employees may be less likely to be late. They also may be more likely to excel at their jobs.

Theories of Learning (contd)

Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts
Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.

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Methods of Shaping Behavior

Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.

Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.

Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.

Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.

Example of Extinction
If the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear.

Schedules of Reinforcement
In real-world settings, behaviors are probably not going to be reinforced each and every time they occur. For situations where you are purposely trying to train and reinforce an action, such as in the classroom, in sports or in animal training, you might opt to follow a specific reinforcement schedule. Some schedules are best suited to certain types of training situations.
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Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

In some cases, training might call for starting out with one schedule and then switching to another once the desired behavior has been taught.

A schedule of reinforcement is basically a rule stating which instances of a behavior will be reinforced. In some case, a behavior might be reinforced every time it occurs. Sometimes, a behavior might not be reinforced at all.
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Two Types of Reinforcement Schedules

1. Continuous Reinforcement 2. Partial Reinforcement
2.1 Fixed-ratio schedules 2.2 Variable-ratio schedules 2.3 Fixed-interval schedules 2.4 Variable-interval schedules

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Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.

Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
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Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.

Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are given at variable time.

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Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


E X H I B I T 24

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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

E X H I B I T 25

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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

E X H I B I T 25 (contd)

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Choosing a Schedule
1. Deciding when to reinforce a behavior can depend upon a number of factors. 2. In cases where you are specifically trying to teach a new behavior, a continuous schedule is often a good choice. 3. Once the behavior has been learned, switching to a partial schedule is often preferable.


Choosing a Schedule (contd)

Realistically, reinforcing a behavior every single time it occurs can be difficult and requires a great deal of attention and resources. Partial schedules not only tend to lead to behaviors that are more resistant to extinction, they also reduce the risk that the subject will become satiated. If the reinforcer being used is no longer desired or rewarding, the subject may stop performing the desired behavior.

Dr. Albert Bandura (a.k.a. greatest living psychologist) (Born in 1925) Currently: Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University, USA A 2002 survey ranked Bandura as the fourth most-frequently cited psychologist of all time, behind B.F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Jean Piaget, and as the most cited living one.


Theories of Learning (contd)

Bandura's Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and direct experience. "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most

human behavior is learned observationally through modeling:

from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. - Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977

Bandura's Social-Learning Theory

The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.
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Behavior Modification
OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
Five Step Problem-Solving Model
1. Identify critical behaviors 2. Develop baseline performance data 3. Identify behavioral contingencies or consequences of performance 4. Develop and apply intervention strategy to strengthen desirable performance behaviors and weaken undesirable ones. 5. Evaluate performance improvement

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