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CONTROL SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION

General, pump curve - System curve

Parallel operation
Series operation Compressor control Pump control bulletin

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Are recurring problems a responsibility of maintenance?

Controls/procedures may result in equipment failure


May need coordination with process group

CURVE SHAPES

120

100
Head (Percent)

80 60 Full Emission Concentric Bowl & ETA Double Log Spiral Z Series

40

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 Flow (Percent) 120 140 160

TOTAL SYSTEM HEAD

Head, H

System head

System static head System friction head

Capacity, Q

IMPACT OF VALVE THROTTLING

Head, H

Capacity, Q

OPERATING SYSTEM

Head, H

Q2

Q1

Capacity, Q

BY-PASS REQUIRED?

Head, H

Bypass Flow

Capacity, Q

INTERSECTION OF PUMP AND SYSTEM CURVES Head, H

Properly sized pump

Under-sized pump

Capacity, Q

IMPACT OF WEAR

Over a period of time, system and pump characteristics get deteriorated After 15 years, friction losses in pipe are 60% more important! To be taken in account in the choice of the pump

Minor loss for pump performances

MINIMUM FLOW

2 Types of Minimum flow phenomena: At start-up During normal operation

MINIMUM FLOW at start-up

Start-up shock wave

Water Hammering

MINIMUM FLOW during operation

Minimum Continuous stable flow


Minimum Continuous thermal flow

MINIMUM FLOW Flow surging

May happen if a air/gas pocket is located in the downstream line Can be seen as a simple spring-mass system Need a excitation to happen Can be reduced / solved by having a flow control valve close from the pump discharge Predominent for compressors

MINIMUM FLOW Surging reduction

Control valve within 3m of discharge Flexible lines only after control valve A straight pipe of at least 10 times diameter length on the discharge Choose correct size of valve

Install low flow by pass


Eliminate air and gasses trapped Operate at higher flow

MINIMUM FLOW Minimum flow control

FS

MINIMUM FLOW Phenomenon

MAXIMUM FLOW Phenomenon

CONTROLLING

120

100 Head (Percent)

80

60
Full Emission Concentric Bowl & ETA Double Log Spiral Z Series

40

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Flow (Percent) 120 140 160

PARALLEL OPERATION

Head, H

PUMP A AND B

PUMP A OR B Capacity, Q

PARALLEL OPERATION

Always use discharge check valve.

Need differential to open check valve


Low gravity fluid may vaporize - Pump deadheaded. Unstable operation results in equipment damage Always use bypass control valve.

PARALLEL OPERATION

STARTUP SEQUENCE
1. SET EACH BYPASS FOR MIN. ALLOWABLE FLOW 2. CLOSE PROCESS FLOW CONTROL VALVE 3. START PRE-LUBE PUMPS IF APPLICABLE 4. START A AND STABILIZE START B AND STABILIZE 5. SET DESIRED PROCESS FLOW RATE

PARALLEL OPERATION WITH FLOW CONTROLLED BYPASS ON EACH PUMP

A
FLOW SENSOR

CHECK BLOCK CONTROLLER

BYPASS CONTROL VALVE CHECK THROTTLE CONTROL VALVE BLOCK

FLOW SENSOR

BYPASS CONTROL VALVE

CONTROLLER

SERIES OPERATION

Head, H SYSTEM HEAD CURVE

PUMP A AND B

PUMP A OR B Capacity, Q

SERIES OPERATION

Requires extra measure of care (for second unit especially) Pre-lube normally advisable on 2nd unit. Tandem seal & suitable buffer probably required.

Flange rating to be reviewed


Thurst bearing capacity to be increased

SERIES OPERATION - PREFERRED

STARTUP SEQUENCE
1. SET BYPASS FOR MIN. ALLOWABLE FLOW 2. CLOSE PROCESS FLOW CONTROL VALVE 3. START PRE-LUBE PUMPS IF APPLICABLE 4. START 1ST UNIT AND STABILIZE 5. START 2ND UNIT AND STABILIZE 6. SET DESIRED PROCESS FLOW RATE

SENSOR

CHECK

CONTROLLER

CHECK

PROCESS FLOW CONTROL VALVE

BYPASS FLOW CONTROL

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