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Articles are divided into two categories: Definite (the) Indefinite (a/an)

The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound: o a man o a hat o a university o a European o a one-way street

The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or words beginning with a mute h: o an apple o an island o an hour or individual letters spoken with a vowel sound: o an MP o an SOS

Before a singular noun which is countable (i.e. of which there is more than one) when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing: They live in a flat. names of professions: She is an actress. In certain expressions of quantity: a lot of a couple a great many a dozen With certain numbers: a hundred a thousand

the is the same for singular and plural and for all genders: o the boy o the girl o the day the boys o the girls o the days

The before a noun indicates a specific object, which must be introduced in the text beforehand: I bought a coat. The coat I bought was black with buttons.

When the object or group of objects is unique or considered to be unique: the earth the sea the sky the equator the stars

Before superlatives and first, second etc. used as adjectives or pronouns, and only: the first (week) the best day the only way

the is used before certain proper names of seas, rivers, groups of islands, chains of mountains, plural names of countries, deserts, regions the Atlantic the Netherlands the Thames the Sahara the Alps

the is also used before names consisting of noun + of + noun the Gulf of Mexico the United States of America

the is used before other proper names consisting of adjective + noun or noun + of + noun the National Gallery the Tower of London

It is also used before names of choirs, orchestras, pop groups etc the Bach Choir the Philadelphia Orchestra the Beatles

and before names of newspapers (The Times) and ships (the Great Britain)

do not use articles when talking about things in general such as: Life is hard. do not use an article before uncountable nouns when talking about them generally. Crime is always present in society Tea is refreshing Leaves fall in autumn

when we are talking about countries DO NOT USE AN ARTICLE before their names, EXCEPT e where they indicate multiple areas or contain the words State(s), Kingdom, Republic and Union. Kingdom, state, republic and union are nouns, so they need an article. E. g.: Ireland is beautiful. The Republic of Ireland is a stable democracy. The Czech Republic is independent. Canada is under populated.

What is the difference in meaning between the books are expensive and books are expensive?

Possession can be expressed: Possessive adjective Possessive pronouns Apostrophe and s

Are used with a noun: e.g. This is my brother.

Are used on their own e.g. Dont touch that! Thats mine!

Used with singular nouns. e.g. Carry's boy-friend Toms dog

Used with some places. e.g. Im going to the hairdressers .

Used with plural nouns. E.g. my parents house

Every is used with singular nouns: e.g. every student in that school. All can be used in different ways: All + noun: e.g. all men are born equal All + of + noun: e.g. I invited all of the student Pronoun + all e.g. She loves us all.

All + verb e.g. My friedns all love you. All + adjective/adverb/preposition e.g. I am all wet.

All is not usually used to mean everybody/everything e.g. All the people left the party. Everybody left the party.

We use them when the subject and object are the same. e.g. I cut myself. Used as emphasis E.g. I made it myself.