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AIDS

• Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome


• A disorder caused by the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) characterized by a
generalized dysfunction of the immune system.
• High-Risk Groups:
- Homosexual or Bisexual Men
- IV drug users
- Transfusion of blood and blood product recipients
- Heterosexual contacts of HIV positive individuals
- Newborn babies of mothers who are HIV positive
STAGES:
• Stage 1
- fever
- myalgia
- lymphadenopathy
- headache

• Stage 2
- Active but asymptomatic and may remain
so for years
- May experience herpes zoster (shingles)
- May experience a transient
thrombocytopenia
• Stage 3
- Symptomatic
- Evidence of immune dysfunction
- All body systems can present with signs of
immune dysfunction
- Integumentary and gynecological problems
are common

• Stage 4
- Advance HIV infection
- More vulnerable to common bacterial infections
- Development of opportunistic infections
- Serious immune compromise
INFECTIVE ORGANISM:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
INFECTIVE SOURCE:
• Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), commonly
found in the white-collared monkey.

• SIV crossed species (monkey to man) and in the


process, mutated itself and later on became HIV.

• The Hunter Theory

• HIV positive person is the most common carrier


or source
PORTALS OF ENTRY AND EXIT:
• Infecting cells (virus attaching itself to T-cells, making
immune system weak)

• Breaching of surface (open wounds, trauma through


needle prick with contaminated needles)

• Sexual contact with infected partner

• Transfusions of contaminated blood and its products

• Mother-to-child transmission (before birth through the


placental barrier and after birth through breastfeeding)
INCUBATION PERIOD

ETHOD OF TRANSMISSION:
• Horizontal Contact Transmission
• Vertical (perinatal) Transmission

NCUBATION PERIOD:
• average length of incubation at this
time is five to ten years
Pulmonary Manifestations

LINICAL MANIFESTATIONS:
• Pulmonary
Manifestations
• GI Manifestations

• Oral Manifestations

• CNS Manifestations

• Ocular Manifestations

• Malignancies
BORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC TES
• ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)

• WB (Western Blot Test)

• IFA (Immunoflourescence Assay)

• CD4+ T cell counts

• p24 Antigen Test


MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
•Antiretroviral agents

•Adjunct drug therapy to boost immune response

•Supportive care during opportunistic infections

•Pneumococcal, Hepatitis B and yearly influenza


vaccines

•Additional medical management includes treating


anorexia, diarrhea, weight loss and side effects of
antiretroviral medications
NURSING DIAGNOSES:
• Risk for Infection r/t depressed immune system,
broken skin, malnutrition, chronic disease processes

• Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume r/t diarrhea,


profuse sweating, vomiting

• Acute Chronic Pain r/t tissue inflammation /


destruction, infections

• Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirements


r/t altered ability to ingest, digest and absorb
nutrients
NURSING DIAGNOSES:
• Fatigue r/t decrease metabolic energy production

• Social Isolation r/t changes in physical


appearance, state of wellness, therapeutic
regimen

• Disturbed thought processes r/t psychological


changes
NURSING MANAGEMENT:
• Preventing Infection
• Improving Breathing Pattern
• Improve Nutritional Status
• Improving Patient’s Management of HAART
• Reducing Fever
• Minimize Effects of Diarrhea
• Managing Disturbed Thought Process
• Reducing Fear