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Hydraulic Ram And Transient Analysis

Presented By: Arnab Das 2011CEW3394

Under Guidance:

Dr. Rakesh Khosa IIT Delhi

What is a Hydraulic Ram?

The hydraulic ram pump may be defined as a self-acting device that uses the energy of a large volume of water falling from a higher location (relative to the ram) and passing through it, to lift a small volume to a location significantly higher than the source of water. It works on the principle of Water Hammer.

How a Hydraulic Ram works?

When a flowing liquid is suddenly brought to rest, the change in momentum of the liquid mass causes a sudden rise in pressure. This rise in pressure is utilized to raise a portion of the liquid to higher level, thus harnessing the force of water hammer.

Where a Hydraulic Ram works?


Source (river, stream, spring) Supply pipe Drive tank

Service area/Storage facility (not shown) Delivery pipe

Lift (Delivery head)

Drive pipe Fall (Drive head) Hydraulic Ram pump

A working Hydraulic Ram

Working Sequence-1

Working Sequence-2

Working Sequence-3

Working Sequence-4

Parts of a Hydraulic Ram

Different forms, same substance Delivery pipe stub Drive pipe stub Air chamber Delivery valve Impulse valve Air snifter Body Feet

The Waste Valve

Characteristics of a Hydraulic Ram Water-Lifting System


There is no external energy input other than the energy of water passing through the pump.
Its operation will continue 24 hours a day and seven days a week without human intervention so long as the required volume of water continues to flow through it Water has to come from a higher location than a ram Only a small portion of this water (around 25 % or even less) is pumped up, the remainder passing out of the ram and must be drained to a lower location

3. 4.

Characteristics of a Hydraulic Ram Water-Lifting System


The water can be lifted to an extent of 1:10 i.e. for a head of 1m, the lift can be achieved upto 30m but with progressively lower efficiency. Due to the rams small output per minute, there is need for a storage device at the point of delivery to accumulate this output on a 24-hour basis, e.g. an earthen pond for irrigation or ferrocement, metal, or plastic tank for drinking water.


The first self-acting ram pump was invented by the Frenchman Joseph Michel Montgolfier in 1796 for raising water in his paper mill (Montgolfier is more popularly known for his work in hot-air balloons).
The sons of Montgolfier obtained an English patent for an improved version in 1816 but this was acquired, in 1820 by Josiah Easton, a Somerset-born engineer whose firm later installed many rams which are still working satisfactorily.

Ram Pumps in the 21st century

In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in hydraulic rams, particularly in developing countries, due to the continuing rise in fossil-fuel prices.
In India, Vietnam, and China their governments are active in constructing hydraulic ram systems and in disseminating the technology to the countryside for irrigation and drinking water.

Technical Discussions
The valve will open however light it may be since the pressure in the valve box is reduced below that of the atmosphere by the reflux action of the water on its rebound.
Air is being drawn through air snifting valve into the valve box when the pressure falls below the atmosphere. contd

Technical Discussions
Force tending to Open the Valve= (Atm Pressure-Pressure inside Valve) + Wt of Valve

Force tending to close the Valve= (Transient Pressure Atm Pressure) Wt of Valve
- Open time will tend to increase as the Wt

increases Contd..

Technical Discussions
For all practical purposes, the valve opening may be considered as Instantaneous. Velocity of Flow in supply pipe after t secs:


Technical Discussions

For efficient working, wt of the valve should be such that velocity in pipe is 0.4hd ft/sec. The time taken by valve to close cannot be calculated accurately but increases when the lift and wt of valve increases Time during which valve is on its seat increase with increase in the distance between delivery head and waste valve; and as delivery head increases. Contd...

Technical Discussions
Ram Efficiency

= qhd/ (Q+q)H D Aubuissons Formula = q(hd-H)/ QH Rankines Formula

Sources of Loss: 1. Leakage at waste valve 2. Resistance of valve and Pipe 3. Eddy formation due to section change 4. Loss of resilient energy


Technical Discussions
Increasing the travel of waste valve, increases the velocity of efflux and the time of opening and therefore the leakage but at the same time increases the pressure which translate into higher delivery head. A point is reached where increased leakage losses counter-balance the proportional gain of energy. The volume of Air Chamber should be approx 100 times the volume of water delivered per cycle


Actual Performance Chart

Efficiency Chart for Head of 4.5ft


1. Construction of a hydraulic Ram model

2. Validation of experimental data through numerical modelling

1. 2. 3. 4. Hydraulic Ram Pump System Design and Application

- Dr. Abiy Awoke Tessema, Ethiopia (ATF)

Hydraulic Ram Pumps - A Guide to Ram Pumps Water Supply System - Jeffery, T. D., Intermediate Technology Publications Theory and Applications of Hydrams - S. Hazarika, Technical Digest (no. 10, 2007) Hyraulic Ram Pump - Teferi Taye (Journal of ESME, Jul98, Etiopia)


Downstream Hydraulic Transients in combined Free Surface and Pressured flow in Pipes
- Nathan Faber (Thesis, California State University)

6. Design and Construction of Hydraulic Ram Pump

- Shuaibu Mohammed, Leonardo Journal (no. 11, 2007), Nigeria

7. Water Power Engineering - Dnadhar, M. M. and Sharma, K.N. , Vikas Publication House 8. Hydraulic Machines - Jagdish Lal, Dhanpat Rai and Sons Publication 9. Fluid Mechanics and Hyraulic Machines - Bansal, R. K. , Luxmi Publications

10. Hydaulics and its Applications

- Gibson, A. H., Constable and Company Ltd. (London)

Multiple-ram set up

Six 4-inch hydraulic rams with a combined output of more than 300,000 liters per day irrigate around 35 hectares of farmland in central Negros Occidental.