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Physic – kertas 2 1
Physic – kertas 2 1
Physic – kertas 2 1

Physic kertas 2

SECTION A

2

Expansion / increase in volume thermometer X Mercury
Expansion / increase in volume
thermometer X
Mercury
Expansion / increase in volume thermometer X Mercury The smallest division is smaller // able to

The smallest division is smaller // able to detect the smaller change

3

Rate of change of displacement// Velocity = Displacement ÷ Time Between D and E 4
Rate of change of displacement// Velocity = Displacement ÷ Time
Between D and E
4

Total displacement = [ (½ x 4 x 10) + (6 x 10) + (½ x 2 x 10)] [1/2 x 2 x 10] = [20 + 60 + 10] [10] = 80 cm

5

5

Pascal’s Principle
Pascal’s Principle
Pascal’s Principle = 200 F Some of the force is used to compress air bubbles //
= 200 F Some of the force is used to compress air bubbles // The pressure
=
200
F
Some of the force is used to compress air bubbles // The pressure
cannot be transmitted uniformly and immediately because the air
bubble is compressed
1.When the handle is pressed down, the pressure is exerted on the
liquid and transmits uniformly to the large piston
2. The force is produced and pushes the load up

20

F

100

= 40 N

6

increases linearly 0 o C = 273K - 273 o C 7
increases linearly
0 o C = 273K
- 273 o C
7

As the temperature increase, the speed of the molecules increase. The rate of collision between molecules and container wall increase. Therefore, pressure increase

increases linearly 0 o C = 273K - 273 o C 7 As the temperature increase,
= = P₂ 273 + 27 T₁ P₂___ 273 + 80 P₁ P₂ T₂ 235.3 kPa
=
=
P₂
273 + 27
T₁
P₂___
273 + 80
P₁
P₂
T₂
235.3 kPa
200
=

8

Force is an action that can change the type of motion of the object which is
Force is an action that can change the type of motion of the object
which is in a straight line// Pushing or pulling action on an object
9
When the object moves with constant velocity or the object is stationary, the net force is
When the object moves with constant velocity or the object is
stationary, the net force is zero
The aeroplane will accelerate.
Forces in equilibrium.
F e = F d // Equal
T = W // Equal
Net force = 0 N
Net force = 0 N
10
MEASURE of the ability of the conductor to resist the flow of current through it The
MEASURE of the ability of the conductor to resist the flow of
current through it
The potential difference in Diagram 6.1 is bigger
The length of wire in Diagram 6.1 is longer
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The magnitude of current is the same in both diagrams.
The magnitude of current is the same in both diagrams.
The longer the length the higher the resistance The resistance of wire in Diagram 6.1 is
The longer the length the higher the resistance
The resistance of wire in Diagram 6.1 is bigger
2. Because total resistance decreases
1. Current increases

12

The incidence angle in denser medium produce a 90⁰ refracted angle.
The incidence angle in denser medium produce a 90⁰ refracted angle.
n = 1/0.669 n = 1.49 or 1.50 Total internal Reflection n = 1/ sin 42
n = 1/0.669
n = 1.49 or 1.50
Total internal Reflection
n = 1/ sin 42
13
refractive index of the inner core is greater than the outer cladding. Optical fibre has high
refractive index of the inner core is greater than the outer
cladding.
Optical fibre has high flexibility.
total internal reflection can occur

A bundle of optical fibres can transmit more information (An optical fibre is very small in diameter)

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15

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v = fƛ f( 2 X 10⁻²) 1.5 X 10¹⁰ Hz 3 X 10 8 =
v
=
f( 2 X 10⁻²)
1.5 X 10¹⁰ Hz
3 X 10 8
=
f
=
Microwave
v = fƛ f( 2 X 10⁻²) 1.5 X 10¹⁰ Hz 3 X 10 8 =

v

=

s/t

3 X 10 8

=

4.8 x 10 7

t

=

t 0.16 s

16

Waves converge at focal point// Signal focus at focal point converge wave// focus the signal Concave
Waves converge at focal point// Signal focus at focal point
converge wave// focus the signal
Concave reflector
At focal point
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can collect more wave/ signal Type X is most suitable Big
can collect more wave/ signal
Type X is most suitable
Big

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SECTION B

19

Force per unit surface area// Pressure = Force ÷ Surface area - Mass of load is

Force per unit surface area// Pressure = Force ÷ Surface area

- Mass of load is equal
- Mass of load is equal
  • - Depth of sinking in D9.2 is less than D9.1 // Vice versa

  • - Area in contact with the soft ground in D9.2 is bigger than D9.1

20

When depth of sinking increases, the pressure increases When area in contact increases, pressure decreases 1.

When depth of sinking increases, the pressure increases

When depth of sinking increases, the pressure increases When area in contact increases, pressure decreases 1.

When area in contact increases, pressure decreases

When depth of sinking increases, the pressure increases When area in contact increases, pressure decreases 1.
  • 1. When the piston is pushed in, the air flows out of the nozzle with high speed

  • 2. Creating a region of low pressure above the narrow tube

  • 3. The higher pressure of the atmospheric air acts on the surface of the liquid causing it to rise up the narrow tube

  • 4. The liquid leaves the top of the narrow tube through the nozzle as a fine spray.

21

Tak perlu fikirkan sangat ini! 22
Tak perlu fikirkan sangat ini! 22
Tak perlu fikirkan
sangat ini!
22
Tak perlu fikirkan sangat ini! 22

Criteria

Explanation / Modification

Structure of the dam

  • 1. Build a dam that has thicker wall at the base, to withstand higher pressure at the bottom

The design to ensure safety

  • 1. Equipped with water overflow system, avoid overflow/ flooding

  • 2. Build high wall, store more water / avoid overflow

The material used

 

for the dam

  • 1. Made of concrete, not easily break

Additional component to

electricity

  • 1. Build turbine at the bottom of the wall, high water pressure will turn the turbine to

produce

produce electricity

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24
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Sources that have same amplitude, frequency and in phase The separation between two consecutive antinodal or

Sources that have same amplitude, frequency and in phase

The separation between two consecutive antinodal or nodal • Diagram 10.2 is bigger Name the phenomenon
The separation between
two consecutive
antinodal or nodal
• Diagram 10.2 is bigger
Name the phenomenon
the two coherent source
The distance between
• Both are equal
The wavelength
• Interference
Compare
• bigger in Diagram 10.1
or
• The smaller the distance between two sources,
the bigger the separation between two
consecutive antinodal/ nodal lines.

25

Speed of wave is uniform // Wavelength is uniform 26

Speed of wave is uniform // Wavelength is uniform

Speed of wave is uniform // Wavelength is uniform 26
Speed of wave is uniform // Wavelength is uniform 26

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27
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Aspect

Reasons

Location of resort AT THE BAY

  • 1. Calmer water and lower amplitude waves because energy diverged// spread out.

Features to reduce the

  • 1. Build barriers with small opening, water waves are reflected and diffracted so less energy wave

erosion of shore

reach the shore.

BUILD BARRIERS WITH SMALL GAP & HIGH WALL BARRIER

  • 2. Build high wall barriers, to protect beach from high waves.

Features to enable

  • 1. To create shallow area, speed and wavelength of

children to swim safely TO BUILD SANDBANK

wave decreases.

Features to protect

  • 1. Grow tall trees between the beach and hotel, the trees spreads out the wind energy

hotel from strong wind

TO GROW TALL TREE

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SECTION C

29

Springs constant ,k is the ratio of force to the extension // k = F /

Springs constant ,k is the ratio of force to the extension // k = F / x

Springs constant ,k is the ratio of force to the extension // k = F /

Spring X

Springs constant ,k is the ratio of force to the extension // k = F /

• Spring X is thicker • Spring X is stiffer • Spring X extend shorter than spring Y for the same force • k = F / x , extension of spring is shorter, the value of k is higher

30

31
31

31

Characteristic Explanation Small diameter enough space for the spring to be installed // more stiffer High

Characteristic

Explanation

Small diameter

enough space for the spring to be installed // more stiffer

High elastic limit

can support heavy load

higher spring constant

small compression of the spring

small natural frequency

reduce bumping

S is chosen

small diameter , highest elastic limit, highest spring constant and small natural frequency

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k = F / x (0.3 x 10) = = 50 Nm⁻¹
k
=
F / x
(0.3 x 10)
=
=
50 Nm⁻¹

0.06m

=

X

0.3 kg

0.3 kg

Length of spring = 20

=

+ 10

6 cm

 

0.5 cm

6

x

0.5

=

10 cm

0.3

30 cm

33

The distance between focal point and optical centre Virtual, upright and magnified 34

The distance between focal point and optical centre

The distance between focal point and optical centre Virtual, upright and magnified 34
The distance between focal point and optical centre Virtual, upright and magnified 34

Virtual, upright and magnified

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35
35
35
35

35

36
36

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Aspects

Explanation

f o > f e

Higher magnification of image

Eyepiece is thicker than objective lens

Shorter focal length and higher power

Diameter of the

 

objective lens is greater than diameter of eyepiece.

To ensure more light can enter the telescope to produce brighter image

Distance between two lenses S = f o + f e

f o + f e is the distance of normal adjustment which will produce a sharp image.

Chosen arrangement :

Because f o > f e , eyepiece is thicker than objective lens, diameter of the objective lens is greater than

K

diameter of eyepiece and distance of two lenses is f o + f e

37

so ,
so ,

P

= 1/f

f

= 1/5

= 0.2 m = 20 cm

u

= 30 cm, v = ?

1

=

1

+

1

f

u

v

1

=

1

-

1

v

f

u

1

=

1

-

1

v

20

30

v

=

60 cm

  • m =

v

u

  • m = 60/30

=

2

so , P = 1/f f = 1/5 = 0.2 m = 20 cm u =

Real, magnified and inverted

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